Transparency And Bidding Competition In International Wheat Trade
One of the major trade policy problems identified by U.S. interests, including grower groups, traders, and policymakers, is that of pricing transparency. This has been a gnawing issue generally related to the pricing practices of competitor exporting countries with state trading enterprises (STEs). The transparency problem generally refers to the inability to observe rivals' terms of trade (including price, quality, credit, etc.) and is normally associated with commercial exporters competing against STE rivals. The perception being the less transparent competitors (STEs) would have a strategic advantage. A game theory model of bidding competition was developed to simulate the effects of information asymmetry amongst rivals. A Bayes-Nash equilibrium was used to derive equilibrium solutions. Several stylized examples were used to illustrate aspects of competition and to analyze effects on bidding strategies. Results indicate that: 1) anything that reduces uncertainties among rivals would reduce equilibrium bids and prices; 2) bidding situations in which there is less transparency have the effect of increasing bids and prices to buyers, and payoffs to sellers; and 3) increases in the number of rivals have the effect of reducing bids and mitigating the informational advantages of STEs. In all cases, less transparent sellers have an advantage in bidding competition relative to more transparent sellers. That advantage in our stylized case was in the area of 1-2$/mt. However, that advantage is mitigated with an increase in the number of transparent rivals and in the case where more transparent players have acted as agents for an STE and have more information about costs of an STE. Further, cessation of exports under U.S. EEP programs should have decreased the transparency of U.S. firms, increasing their competitiveness in the international grain trade.
|Date of creation:||1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (701) 231-7441
Web page: http://www.ext.nodak.edu/homepages/aedept/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anderson, John D. & Ward, Clement E. & Koontz, Stephen R. & Peel, Derrell S. & Trapp, James N., 1998. "Experimental Simulation Of Public Information Impacts On Price Discovery And Marketing Efficiency In The Fed Cattle Market," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(01), July.
- Milgrom, Paul, 1989. "Auctions and Bidding: A Primer," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 3-22, Summer.
- Hughart, David, 1975. "Informational Asymmetry, Bidding Strategies, and the Marketing of Offshore Petroleum Leases," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(5), pages 969-85, October.
- R. Preston McAfee & John McMillan, 1986. "Bidding for Contracts: A Principal-Agent Analysis," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(3), pages 326-338, Autumn.
- Skully, David W, 1992. "Price Discrimination and State Trading: The Case of U.S. Wheat," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 19(3), pages 313-29.
- Bourgeon, Jean-Marc & Le Roux, Yves, 1996.
"Tenders for European Cereal Export Refunds: A Structural Approach,"
European Review of Agricultural Economics,
Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 23(1), pages 5-26.
- Bourgeon & Yves Le Roux, 1996. "Tenders for European cereal export refunds : a structural approach," Working Papers 152922, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
- Harsanyi, John C, 1995.
"Games with Incomplete Information,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 291-303, June.
- Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert H. & Wilson, Charles A., 1990.
"Auctions For Oil And Gas Leases With An Informed Bidder And A Random Reservation Price,"
90-47, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert H & Wilson, Charles A, 1994. "Auctions for Oil and Gas Leases with an Informed Bidder and a Random Reservation Price," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1415-44, November.
- Uwe Latacz-Lohmann & Carel Van der Hamsvoort, 1997. "Auctioning Conservation Contracts: A Theoretical Analysis and an Application," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(2), pages 407-418.
- Sexton, Richard J., 1994. "A Survey of Noncooperative Game Theory with Reference to Agricultural Markets: Part 2. Potential Applications in Agriculture," Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 62(02), August.
- Wilson, Robert, 1979. "Auctions of Shares," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 675-89, November.
- Douglas K. Reece, 1978. "Competitive Bidding for Offshore Petroleum Leases," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 369-384, Autumn.
- Michael H. Rothkopf & Ronald M. Harstad, 1994. "Modeling Competitive Bidding: A Critical Essay," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(3), pages 364-384, March.
- Ryan, Timothy J., 1993. "Marketing Australia's Crop: The Way Ahead," 1993 Conference (37th), February 9-11, 1993, Sydney, Australia 147404, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
- Robert B. Wilson, 1967. "Competitive Bidding with Asymmetric Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 13(11), pages 816-820, July.
- Hausch, Donald B & Li, Lode, 1993. "A Common Value Auction Model with Endogenous Entry and Information Acquisition," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 315-34, April.
- R. Preston McAfee & John McMillan, 1996. "Analyzing the Airwaves Auction," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(1), pages 159-175, Winter.
- McAfee, R Preston & McMillan, John, 1987. "Auctions and Bidding," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(2), pages 699-738, June.
- Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert H, 1988. "An Empirical Study of an Auction with Asymmetric Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 865-83, December.
- Wilson, Robert, 1992. "Strategic analysis of auctions," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 227-279 Elsevier.
- John McMillan & Michael Rothschild & Robert Wilson, 1997. "Introduction," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 425-430, 09.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:nddaer:23403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.