On Term Structure Models of Commodity Futures Prices and the Kaldor-Working Hypothesis
Both prices and the volatility of storable agricultural commodity futures contracts have been rising since 2005 and particularly since 2007. This paper aims to answer two principal questions: (i) How has the behavior of these futures prices over time and across maturities changed with the rise of biofuels and their demand-side pres- sure on corn and related crops?, and (ii) Is there now stronger or weaker evidence of the Kaldor-Working convenience yield-storage hypothesis, whereby futures price backwardation can be explained by the high value of remaining inventory stocks when these are near stockouts? The empirical application is to Chicago Board of Trade corn, wheat and soybeans futures. To make use of all available futures data rather than only the nearby, this paper adopts a recently developed affine term structure model approach and conducts estimation in state-space form using the Kalman filter. A novel aspect of the research is that it allows an arbitrary number N of state vari- ables, where more variables provide further precision and curvature but at a higher computational cost. It is found that a three-state variable model containing both ran- dom walk and mean reversion components provides the most parsimonious fit during 1988-2004, but that a simple one-state variable model is optimal for the period 2005- 2007. The main implication is that futures prices since 2005 behave much more like a \random walk" than before. Also, the model allows us to estimate the term struc- ture of volatility and it is found that distant maturity futures should be expected to be much more volatile than historically normal. Two practical but only tentative implications are: (a) hedgers should use significantly lower hedge ratios than before, and (b) for traders, the classic Black-Scholes option pricing solution should perform better now than it has historically. Lastly, the paper finds partial empirical support for the convenience yield relationship with relative inventory stocks, especially for soybeans and wheat.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 326 Mumford Hall, MC-710, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois, 61801|
Phone: (217) 333-1810
Fax: (217) 333-5538
Web page: http://www.farmdoc.uiuc.edu/nccc134/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eduardo Schwartz & James E. Smith, 2000. "Short-Term Variations and Long-Term Dynamics in Commodity Prices," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(7), pages 893-911, July.
- Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1997. " The Stochastic Behavior of Commodity Prices: Implications for Valuation and Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 923-73, July.
- Chambers, Marcus J & Bailey, Roy E, 1996.
"A Theory of Commodity Price Fluctuations,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 924-57, October.
- J. Michael Harrison & David M. Kreps, 1978. "Speculative Investor Behavior in a Stock Market with Heterogeneous Expectations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 92(2), pages 323-336.
- Jin-Chuan Duan & Jean-Guy Simonato, 1995.
"Estimating and Testing Exponential Affine Term Structure Models by Kalman Filter,"
CIRANO Working Papers
- Duan, Jin-Chuan & Simonato, Jean-Guy, 1999. "Estimating and Testing Exponential-Affine Term Structure Models by Kalman Filter," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-35, September.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
- Jaime Casassus & Pierre Collin-Dufresne, 2005. "Stochastic Convenience Yield Implied from Commodity Futures and Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2283-2331, October.
- Gibson, Rajna & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1990. " Stochastic Convenience Yield and the Pricing of Oil Contingent Claims," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 959-76, July.
- Aaron Smith, 2005.
"Partially overlapping time series: a new model for volatility dynamics in commodity futures,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(3), pages 405-422.
- Smith, Aaron D., 2004. "Partially Overlapping Time Series: A New Model for Volatility Dynamics in Commodity Futures," Working Papers 11978, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
- Scott H. Irwin & Carl R. Zulauf & Thomas E. Jackson, 1996. "Monte Carlo Analysis of Mean Reversion in Commodity Futures Prices," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 387-399.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1987. "Commodity Futures Prices: Some Evidence on Forecast Power, Premiums,and the Theory of Storage," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 55-73, January.
- Bryan Routledge & Duane Seppi & Chester Spatt, .
"Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities,"
GSIA Working Papers
1997-49, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
- Anders B. Trolle & Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2006. "A General Stochastic Volatility Model for the Pricing and Forecasting of Interest Rate Derivatives," NBER Working Papers 12337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
- NG, Serena & RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco J., 1997.
"Explaining the Persistence of Commodity Prices,"
Cahiers de recherche
9709, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Ronald W. Anderson & Jean-Pierre Danthine, 1983. "The Time Pattern of Hedging and the Volatility of Futures Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(2), pages 249-266.
- Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1978. "Information, futures prices, and stabilizing speculation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 79-98, February.
- de Jong, Frank & Santa-Clara, Pedro, 1999. "The Dynamics of the Forward Interest Rate Curve: A Formulation with State Variables," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(01), pages 131-157, March.
- Lin, Chuanyi & Roberts, Matthew C., 2006. "A Term Structure Model for Commodity Prices: Does Storability Matter?," 2006 Conference, April 17-18, 2006, St. Louis, Missouri 18993, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
- Qiang Dai & Kenneth J. Singleton, 2000.
"Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1943-1978, October.
- Qiang Dai & Kenneth J. Singleton, 1998. "Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-083, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- Qiang Dai & Kenneth J. Singleton, 1997. "Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models," NBER Working Papers 6128, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Carter, Colin A., 1999. "Commodity futures markets: a survey," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 43(2).
- Bessembinder, Hendrik, et al, 1995. " Mean Reversion in Equilibrium Asset Prices: Evidence from the Futures Term Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 361-75, March.
- Brennan, Donna & Williams, Jeffrey & Wright, Brian D, 1997. "Convenience Yield without the Convenience: A Spatial-Temporal Interpretation of Storage under Backwardation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(443), pages 1009-22, July.
- Williams,Jeffrey C. & Wright,Brian D., 2005.
"Storage and Commodity Markets,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521023399, December.
- Karali, Berna & Thurman, Walter N., 2008. "Volatility Persistence in Commodity Futures:Inventory and Time-to-Delivery Effects," 2008 Conference, April 21-22, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri 37612, NCCC-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1988. " Business Cycles and the Behavior of Metals Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1075-93, December.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/1937 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:nccest:37608. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.