Do Farmers Hedge Optimally or by Habit? A Bayesian Partial-Adjustment Model of Farmer Hedging
Hedging is one of the most important risk management decisions that farmers make and has a potentially large role in the level of profit eventually earned from farming. Using panel data from a survey of Georgia farmers that recorded their hedging decisions for four years on three crops we examine the role of habit, demographics, farm characteristics, and information sources on the hedging decisions made by 106 different farmers. We find that the role of habit varies widely. Information sources are shown to have significant and large effects on the chosen hedge ratios. The farmer's education level, attitude toward technology adoption, farm profitability, and the ratio of acres owned to acres farmed also play important roles in hedging decisions.
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- Dorfman, Jeffrey H. & Pennings, Joost M.E. & Garcia, Philip, . "Is Hedging a Habit? Hedging Ratio Determination of Cotton Producers," Journal of Agribusiness, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia.
- Koop, Gary & Tobias, Justin L., 2006.
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Elsevier, vol. 134(1), pages 283-315, September.
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- Gary Koop & Justin Tobias, 2003. "Semiparametric Bayesian inference in smooth coefficient models," Discussion Papers in Economics 04/18, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
- Pennings, Joost M. E. & Garcia, Philip, 2004. "Hedging behavior in small and medium-sized enterprises: The role of unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 951-978, May.
- Joost M.E. Pennings & Raymond M. Leuthold, 2000. "The Role of Farmers' Behavioral Attitudes and Heterogeneity in Futures Contracts Usage," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(4), pages 908-919.
- Holt, Matthew T & Goodwin, Barry K, 1997. "Generalized Habit Formation in an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System: An Application to Meat Expenditures in the U.S," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 293-320.
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