IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Do Farmers Hedge Optimally or by Habit? A Bayesian Partial-Adjustment Model of Farmer Hedging


  • Dorfman, Jeffrey H.
  • Karali, Berna


Hedging is one of the most important risk management decisions that farmers make and has a potentially large role in the level of profit eventually earned from farming. Using panel data from a survey of Georgia farmers that recorded their hedging decisions for four years on three crops we examine the role of habit, demographics, farm characteristics, and information sources on the hedging decisions made by 106 different farmers. We find that the role of habit varies widely. Information sources are shown to have significant and large effects on the chosen hedge ratios. The farmer's education level, attitude toward technology adoption, farm profitability, and the ratio of acres owned to acres farmed also play important roles in hedging decisions.

Suggested Citation

  • Dorfman, Jeffrey H. & Karali, Berna, 2008. "Do Farmers Hedge Optimally or by Habit? A Bayesian Partial-Adjustment Model of Farmer Hedging," 2008 Conference, April 21-22, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri 37596, NCCC-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:nccest:37596
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.37596

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Koop, Gary & Tobias, Justin L., 2006. "Semiparametric Bayesian inference in smooth coefficient models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 134(1), pages 283-315, September.
    2. Holt, Matthew T & Goodwin, Barry K, 1997. "Generalized Habit Formation in an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System: An Application to Meat Expenditures in the U.S," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 293-320.
    3. Dorfman, Jeffrey H. & Pennings, Joost M.E. & Philip Garcia, 2010. "Is Hedging a Habit? Hedging Ratio Determination of Cotton Producers," Journal of Agribusiness, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia, vol. 28(1).
    4. Pennings, Joost M. E. & Garcia, Philip, 2004. "Hedging behavior in small and medium-sized enterprises: The role of unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 951-978, May.
    5. Joost M.E. Pennings & Raymond M. Leuthold, 2000. "The Role of Farmers' Behavioral Attitudes and Heterogeneity in Futures Contracts Usage," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(4), pages 908-919.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Bedek, Željka & Njavro, Mario, 2016. "Risks and Competitiveness in Agriculture with Emphasis on Wine Sector in Croatia," APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, AGRIMBA, vol. 10(1), pages 1-8, March.
    2. Carrer, Marcelo José & Silveira, Rodrigo Lanna F. & Meirelles De Souza Filho, Hildo, 2017. "Citrus Producers' Choice of Price Risk Management Tools," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258352, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

    More about this item


    Agricultural Finance;

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q14 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Finance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:nccest:37596. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.