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Potenzial Verschiedener Experimenteller Designs Für Die Politik-Folgenabschätzung

Author

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  • Gruner, Sven
  • Hirschauer, Norbert
  • Mußhoff, Oliver

Abstract

Ökonomische Experimente werden traditionell in einer Laborumgebung durchgeführt. Labor-experimente zeichnen sich durch eine hohe interne Validität aus. Die externe Validität ist aber aufgrund der i.d.R. stilisiert-vereinfachten Experimentierumgebung oft eingeschränkt. In den letzten Jahren wurden experimentelle Studien auch im Agrarbereich zunehmend außerhalb der Laborumgebung mit Hilfe des Internets durchgeführt. Die Zielsetzung des vorliegenden Beitrags besteht darin, ökonomische Experimente zu systematisieren und die Vor- und Nach-teile internetbasierter Experimente zu diskutieren. Im besonderen Fokus steht dabei die Nutz-barkeit von Experimenten für die Politikfolgenabschätzung im Agrarbereich. Die drei zentra-len Ergebnisse lauten: Erstens, durch die Internetnutzung können die mit der Teilnahme am Experiment verbundenen Kosten gegenüber der traditionellen Laborumgebung gesenkt wer-den. Dies gilt sowohl für die direkten Kosten des Experimentators als auch für die Opportuni-tätskosten der Teilnehmer. Zweitens, wenn durch diesen Kostenvorteil Mittel frei werden, entsteht die Chance, gezielt Maßnahmen zur Erhöhung der externen Validität zu ergreifen. Es ist nicht nur leichter, mehr Teilnehmer zu gewinnen und höhere erfolgsabhängige Prämien zu vergeben. Vielmehr lassen sich auch leichter Repräsentanten der sozialen Gruppe (z.B. Landwirte) für die Teilnahme gewinnen, die Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist. Dies ermög-licht ein experimentelles Testen des realen Verhaltens realer Akteure mit realen Folgen, das für die Politikfolgenabschätzung bedeutsam sein kann. Drittens, in der vertrauten Umgebung am eigenen PC Entscheidungen zu treffen, ähnelt dem regulären Entscheidungsumfeld weit mehr als das Laborsetting. Dem letztgenannten Vorteil steht allerdings der Nachteil einer ver-ringerten internen Validität gegenüber. Bei internetbasierten Experimenten lässt sich die Ent-scheidungsumgebung weniger gut kontrollieren. Der Experimentator weiß z.B. nicht, welchen Aufwand die Teilnehmer am Experiment betreiben und mit wem sie kommunizieren.

Suggested Citation

  • Gruner, Sven & Hirschauer, Norbert & Mußhoff, Oliver, 2014. "Potenzial Verschiedener Experimenteller Designs Für Die Politik-Folgenabschätzung," 54th Annual Conference, Goettingen, Germany, September 17-19, 2014 187601, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:gewi14:187601
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    References listed on IDEAS

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