IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

South African Farmers’ Perceptions of the Benefits and Costs of Complying with EUREPGAP to Export Fresh Citrus to the European Union (EU)


  • Darroch, Mark A.G.


A representative stratified random sample of 100 South African farmers from across all production regions that export fresh citrus to the EU were surveyed during 2007-2008 to document their perceptions of the benefits and costs of complying with EUREPGAP standards on citrus exports. Principal Component Analysis identified six broad dimensions of internal benefits as improved operating/technical performance; regulations compliance and intra-business benefits; gains in competitiveness; regulations compliance and new market access; benefits from existing markets; and to overcome non-tariff barriers to entry. Two further dimensions of supply chain benefits identified by PCA were improved business working relationship and product quality benefits, and improved cooperation and contractual benefits. The sampled growers thus perceive operational, technical, safety, management, monetary, marketing and supply chain benefits from certification. The major costs of implementing EUREPGAP certification related to initial investment costs and the recurrent annual costs of compliance. The respondents, on average, spent R70510 on initial compliance costs, mainly for infrastructure, additional buildings and employees training. Some 60% of respondents spent less than 1% of annual farm turnover on initial compliance costs, while most of the respondents (84%) spent less than 1% of annual farm turnover on recurrent costs of compliance. Growers that owned a pack-house had statistically significantly higher initial and annual costs of compliance. The intra- and inter-firm benefits and costs of compliance identified by these results indicate factors that policymakers, and the Citrus Growers’ Association of Southern Africa, can focus on to improve the competitiveness of SA fresh citrus exports to the EU.

Suggested Citation

  • Darroch, Mark A.G., 2010. "South African Farmers’ Perceptions of the Benefits and Costs of Complying with EUREPGAP to Export Fresh Citrus to the European Union (EU)," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 96437, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE);Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaae10:96437

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Henson, Spencer & Reardon, Thomas, 2005. "Private agri-food standards: Implications for food policy and the agri-food system," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 241-253, June.
    2. Henson, Spencer J. & Jaffee, Steven, 2006. "A Strategic Perspective on the Impact of Food Safety Standards on Developing Countries," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25456, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Vermeulen, Hester & Jordaan, Daniel du Plessis Scheepers & Korsten, Luuk & Kirsten, Johann F., 2006. "Private Standards, Handling and Hygiene in Fruit Export Supply Chains: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Economic Impact of Parallel Standards," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25708, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Jill E. Hobbs & DeeVon Bailey & David L. Dickinson & Morteza Haghiri, 2005. "Traceability in the Canadian Red Meat Sector: Do Consumers Care?," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 53(1), pages 47-65, March.
    5. Ortmann, Gerald F., 2000. "Promoting competitiveness in South African agriculture and agribusiness: The role of institutions," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 39(4), December.
    6. Henson, Spencer J. & Sparling, David & Herath, Deepananda P.B. & Dessureault, Simon, 2005. "Traceability in the Canadian Dairy Processing Sector," Economic and Market Information 55303, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
    7. Lokman Zaibet & Maury Brendahl, 1997. "Gains from ISO certification in the UK meat sector," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(4), pages 375-384.
    8. Christopher R. Turner & Gerald F. Ortmann & Michael C. Lyne, 2000. "Adoption of ISO 9000 quality assurance standards by South African agribusiness firms," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 295-307.
    9. Clover, T.A. & Darroch, Mark A.G., 2005. "Owners' perceptions of factors that constrain the survival and growth of small, medium and micro agribusinesses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(2), June.
    10. Hassan Fouayzi & Julie A. Caswell & Neal H. Hooker, 2006. "Motivations of Fresh-Cut Produce Firms to Implement Quality Management Systems," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(1), pages 132-146.
    11. Jill E. Hobbs, 2004. "Information asymmetry and the role of traceability systems," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 397-415.
    12. Holleran, Erin & Bredahl, Maury E. & Zaibet, Lokman, 1999. "Private incentives for adopting food safety and quality assurance," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 669-683, December.
    13. Krieger, Stephanie & Schiefer, Gerhard, 2005. "Decision Support Model for the Optimization of Quality Systems in the Agri-Food Industry," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24710, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Kleinwechter, Ulrich & Grethe, Harald, 2006. "The adoption of the Eurepgap Standard by Mango Exporters in Piura, Peru," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25521, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    South African fresh citrus exports; European Union; perceived benefits and costs; EUREPGAP compliance; Farm Management;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaae10:96437. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.