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Ökonomische Auswirkungen umweltpolitischer Regulierungen : eine Machbarkeitsstudie vor dem Hintergrund der Anforderungen der Richtlinie 96/61/EG über die integrierte Vermeidung und Verminderung von Umweltverschmutzungen (IVU-Richtlinie)

  • Tilmann Rave

    ()

  • Ursula Triebswetter

Diese Studie wurde für das Umweltbundesamt erstellt und soll darüber hinaus Anstöße für das vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung initiierte Projekt „Neue Techniken für den integrierten, medienübergreifenden Umweltschutz“ liefern. Den Hintergrund für die Studie bildet die Richtlinie 96/61/EG über die integrierte Vermeidung und Verminderung von Umweltverschmutzungen (IVU-Richtlinie), die ein wichtiges Instrument der Europäischen Union für die schrittweise Harmonisierung der Genehmigungsverfahren und -bedingungen von großen Industrieanlagen in den Mitgliedstaaten darstellt. Sie zieht die gesamten, medienübergreifenden Auswirkungen von Industrieanlage auf die Umwelt in Betracht, wie z.B. Verschmutzung der Luft, des Wassers und des Bodens, Abfallentstehung, Einsatz der Rohstoffe, Energieeffizienz, Lärm, Störfallvermeidung, Risikomanagement, etc. Die Emissionsbegrenzungen in den Genehmigungsbescheiden sollen sich dabei auf ”Beste Verfügbare Techniken” (BVT) stützen. Von den integrierten Genehmigungsverfahren für Industrieanlagen werden aber nicht nur eine Verbesserung der Umweltqualität, sondern auch ökonomische Auswirkungen erwartet. Neben Kostenbelastungen für einige, der unmittelbar betroffenen Unternehmen sind auch weiterreichende öko-nomische Effekte auf der Meso- und ggf. sogar der Makroebene denkbar, z.B. durch die Stimulierung der Nachfrage, Innovationsanreize und Wettbewerbsimplikationen. Die Studie hat den Charakter einer Machbarkeitsstudie und beschränkt sich im wesentlichen auf konzeptionelle und methodische Fragen. Sie nimmt also selbst keinerlei Berechnungen oder konkrete Auswertungen vor, sondern soll Empfehlungen für das Design von möglichen Folgeuntersuchungen geben (insbesondere zu den erwähnten „weiterreichenden Effekten“). Im Ergebnis zeigt sich, dass die Berechnung der vielen möglichen ökonomischen Effekte eine große Herausforderung für die empirische Forschung darstellt. Dennoch bestehen eine Reihe von Anknüpfungspunkten bei etablierten un

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This book is provided by Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich in its series ifo Forschungsberichte with number 30 and published in 2006.
Handle: RePEc:ces:ifofob:30
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  1. Wayne B Gray & Ronald J Shadbegian, 2001. "Plant Vintage, Technology, and Environmental Regulation," Working Papers 01-08, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  2. Mohr, Robert D., 2002. "Technical Change, External Economies, and the Porter Hypothesis," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 158-168, January.
  3. Lutz, Christian & Meyer, Bernd & Nathani, Carsten & Schleich, Joachim, 2005. "Endogenous technological change and emissions: the case of the German steel industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1143-1154, June.
  4. Karen Palmer & Wallace E. Oates & Paul R. Portney, 1995. "Tightening Environmental Standards: The Benefit-Cost or the No-Cost Paradigm?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 119-132, Fall.
  5. Kerr, Suzi & Newell, Richard, 2001. "Policy-Induced Technology Adoption: Evidence from the U.S. Lead Phasedown," Discussion Papers dp-01-14, Resources For the Future.
  6. Klevmarken, N. Anders, 2001. "Micro Simulation - A Tool for Economic Analysis," Working Paper Series 2001:13, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  7. Claudia Werker & Thomas Brenner, 2004. "Empirical Calibration of Simulation Models," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2004-10, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
  8. Feichtinger, Gustav & Hartl, Richard F. & Kort, Peter M. & Veliov, Vladimir M., 2005. "Environmental policy, the porter hypothesis and the composition of capital: Effects of learning and technological progress," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 434-446, September.
  9. Tim Jeppesen & John A. List & Henk Folmer, 2002. "Environmental Regulations and New Plant Location Decisions: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 19-49.
  10. Francesco Ricci, 2007. "Environmental policy and growth when inputs are differentiated in pollution intensity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 38(3), pages 285-310, November.
  11. Adam B. Jaffe et al., 1995. "Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of U.S. Manufacturing: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 132-163, March.
  12. Lanjouw, Jean Olson & Mody, Ashoka, 1996. "Innovation and the international diffusion of environmentally responsive technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 549-571, June.
  13. Vanessa OLTRA (GRES-IFReDE-E3i) & Maïder SAINT-JEAN (GRES-IFReDE-E3i), 2003. "The dynamics of environmental innovations : three stylised trajectories of clean technology," Cahiers du GRES (2002-2009) 2003-03, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
  14. Thomas Roediger-Schluga, 2003. "Some Micro-Evidence on the "Porter Hypothesis" from Austrian VOC Emission Standards," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 359-379.
  15. Richard G. Newell & Adam B. Jaffe & Robert N. Stavins, 1998. "The Induced Innovation Hypothesis and Energy-Saving Technological Change," NBER Working Papers 6437, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Jenkins, Rhys, 1998. "Environmental Regulation and International Competitiveness: A Review of Literature and Some European Evidence," UNU-INTECH Discussion Paper Series 01, United Nations University - INTECH.
  17. Klevmarken, N.A., 1997. "Behavioral Modeling in Micro Simulation Models. A Survey," Papers 1997-31, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  18. Michael Fritsch & Bernd Görzig & Ottmar Hennchen & Andreas Stephan, 2004. "European Data Watch: Cost Structure Surveys for Germany," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 124(4), pages 557-566.
  19. Adam Jaffe & Richard Newell & Robert Stavins, 2002. "Environmental Policy and Technological Change," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 22(1), pages 41-70, June.
  20. Filippo Oropallo, 2004. "Enterprise Microsimulation Models And Data Challenges," Public Economics 0409005, EconWPA.
  21. Vanessa Oltra & Maïder Saint Jean, 2005. "The dynamics of environmental innovations: three stylised trajectories of clean technology," Post-Print hal-00162916, HAL.
  22. Leo van Wissen, 2000. "A micro-simulation model of firms: Applications of concepts of the demography of the firm," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 79(2), pages 111-134.
  23. Thomas Roediger-Schluga, 2004. "The Porter Hypothesis and the Economic Consequences of Environmental Regulation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3300.
  24. Frondel, Manuel & Horbach, Jens & Rennings, Klaus & Requate, Till, 2004. "Environmental Policy Tools and Firm-Level Management Practices : Empirical Evidence for Germany," Economics Working Papers 2004,02, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
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