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Applying for entitlements: Employers and the targeted jobs tax credit


  • John H. Bishop

    (Associate Professor, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University)

  • Suk Kang

    (Associate Professor, Tokyo Metropolitan University)


The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) is probably the most outstanding example of a generous entitlement program with a very low participation rate. Only about 10 percent of eligible youth hired are claimed as a tax credit by their employers. The causes of the low participation rates are analyzed by estimating a Poisson model of the number of TJTC-eligibles hired and certified during 1980, 1981, and 1982. Information costs, both fixed and variable, are found to be key barriers to TJTC participation. The cost-effectiveness of TJTC is low because of the stigma attached and the very high recruitment costs of hiring additional TJTC-eligibles. Because employers find it relatively cheap to certify after the fact eligible new employees who would have been hired anyway, this passive mode of participating in TJTC predominates.

Suggested Citation

  • John H. Bishop & Suk Kang, 1991. "Applying for entitlements: Employers and the targeted jobs tax credit," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(1), pages 24-45.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:10:y:1991:i:1:p:24-45 DOI: 10.2307/3325511

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Moffitt, Robert, 1983. "An Economic Model of Welfare Stigma," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1023-1035, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Edward C. Lorenz, 1995. "TJTC and the promise and reality of redistributive vouchering and tax credit policy," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(2), pages 270-290.
    2. Kyle Rozema & Nicolas Ziebarth, 2015. "Behavioral Responses to Taxation: Cigarette Taxes and Food Stamp Take-Up," Working Papers 150015, Canadian Centre for Health Economics.
    3. Sarah Hamersma, 2008. "The effects of an employer subsidy on employment outcomes: A study of the work opportunity and welfare-to-work tax credits," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(3), pages 498-520.
    4. Hamersma, Sarah, 2003. "The Work Opportunity and Welfare–to–Work Tax Credits: Participation Rates Among Eligible Workers," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 56(4), pages 725-738, December.
    5. Deuchert, Eva & Kauer, Lukas, 2013. "Hiring subsidies for people with a disability: Helping or hindering? - Evidence from a small scale social field experiment," Economics Working Paper Series 1335, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    6. Stacy Dickert-Conlin & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1999. "Helping the Working Poor: Employer- vs. Employee-Based Subsidies," Center for Policy Research Policy Briefs 14, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.

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