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Medidas Sanitarias y Fitosanitarias, ¿Barreras al Comercio?: el Caso Peruano en el Asia-Pacífico

Listed author(s):
  • Marcelo Alonso Valverde Arevalo


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    Los aranceles han dejado de representar la principal barrera al comercio exterior, debido a la reducción constante de éstos en el ámbito multilateral o bilateral. Contrariamente, las medidas no arancelarias han ido en aumento, siendo la principal preocupación para las exportaciones mundiales. En este escenario, se presentan las medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias, las cuales sirven para proteger la salud de las personas, animales y plantas en contra de riesgos asociados con enfermedades, pestes u otros; sin embargo, por la naturaleza de las mismas pueden distorsionar el comercio hasta ser utilizadas con fines proteccionistas en favor de las industrias nacionales de los países importadores. El presente artículo cuestiona si es que a pesar de contar con una serie de acuerdos comerciales internacionales, los cuales han disminuido progresivamente los aranceles, el Perú ha logrado un acceso real al mercado del Asia-Pacífico con productos agropecuarios y pesqueros. En ese sentido, se presentan casos históricos y pendientes en materia de acceso a mercados por medidas de carácter sanitario o fitosanitario, tal como el acceso de paltas a Japón. Asimismo, se analizan las disposiciones de los acuerdos comerciales en materia de medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias y se presentan las potenciales oportunidades que se establecen en estos acuerdos, a fin de agilizar el acceso a mercados internacionales, y que no se han aprovechado.

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    Article provided by Universidad del Pacífico - University of the Pacific Lima (Peru) in its journal Journal of Business.

    Volume (Year): 8 (2016)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 35-56

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    Handle: RePEc:udp:journl:v:8:y:2016:i:1:p:35-56
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    1. Chunlai Chen & Jun Yang & Christopher Findlay, 2008. "Measuring the Effect of Food Safety Standards on China’s Agricultural Exports," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(1), pages 83-106, April.
    2. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2008. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 336-350.
    3. Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 18869, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
    4. Wei, Guoxue & Huang, Jikun & Yang, Jun, 2012. "The impacts of food safety standards on China's tea exports," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 253-264.
    5. Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2008. "AJAE Appendix: The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), May.
    6. Henson, Spencer & Loader, Rupert, 2001. "Barriers to Agricultural Exports from Developing Countries: The Role of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Requirements," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 85-102, January.
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