IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/tsj/stataj/v7y2007i3p281-312.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Robust standard errors for panel regressions with cross-sectional dependence

Author

Listed:
  • Daniel Hoechle

    () (Department of Finance, University of Basel)

Abstract

I present a new Stata program, xtscc, that estimates pooled ordinary least-squares/weighted least-squares regression and fixed-effects (within) regression models with Driscoll and Kraay (Review of Economics and Statistics 80: 549–560) standard errors. By running Monte Carlo simulations, I compare the finite-sample properties of the cross-sectional dependence-consistent Driscoll-Kraay estimator with the properties of other, more commonly used covariance matrix estimators that do not account for cross-sectional dependence. The results indicate that Driscol-Kraay standard errors are well calibrated when cross-sectional dependence is present. However, erroneously ignoring cross-sectional correlation in the estimation of panel models can lead to severely biased statistical results. I illustrate the xtscc program by considering an application from empirical finance. Thereby, I also propose a Hausman-type test for fixed effects that is robust to general forms of cross-sectional and temporal dependence. Copyright 2007 by StataCorp LP.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniel Hoechle, 2007. "Robust standard errors for panel regressions with cross-sectional dependence," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 7(3), pages 281-312, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:tsj:stataj:v:7:y:2007:i:3:p:281-312
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.stata-journal.com/article.html?article=st0128
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.stata-journal.com/software/sj7-3/st0128/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1987. "Components of the Bid-Ask Spread and the Statistical Properties of Transaction Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(5), pages 1293-1307, December.
    2. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    3. Rafael E. De Hoyos & Vasilis Sarafidis, 2006. "Testing for cross-sectional dependence in panel-data models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 6(4), pages 482-496, December.
    4. Trueman, Brett, 1994. "Analyst Forecasts and Herding Behavior," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 97-124.
    5. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    6. Donald B. Keim & Ananth Madhavan, "undated". "The Cost of Institutional Equity Trades," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 08-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    7. Lei Feng & Mark S. Seasholes, 2004. "Correlated Trading and Location," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2117-2144, October.
    8. Arellano, M, 1987. "Computing Robust Standard Errors for Within-Groups Estimators," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(4), pages 431-434, November.
    9. Andrews, Donald W K, 1991. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 817-858, May.
    10. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    11. Welch, Ivo, 2000. "Herding among security analysts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 369-396, December.
    12. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    13. David Hirshleifer & Siew Hong Teoh, 2003. "Herd Behaviour and Cascading in Capital Markets: a Review and Synthesis," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 9(1), pages 25-66, March.
    14. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2021. "General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 13-50, January.
    15. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
    16. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
    17. repec:fth:pennfi:68 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Frees, Edward W., 1995. "Assessing cross-sectional correlation in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 393-414, October.
    19. Banz, Rolf W., 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-18, March.
    20. Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 333-355, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Drobetz, Wolfgang & Erdmann, Thomas & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2007. "Predictability in the cross-section of European bank stock returns," Working papers 2007/21, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    2. Christian A. Vossler, 2013. "Analyzing repeated-game economics experiments: robust standard errors for panel data with serial correlation," Chapters, in: John A. List & Michael K. Price (ed.), Handbook on Experimental Economics and the Environment, chapter 3, pages 89-112, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Kim, Min Seong & Sun, Yixiao, 2013. "Heteroskedasticity and spatiotemporal dependence robust inference for linear panel models with fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 177(1), pages 85-108.
    4. Hoechle, Daniel & Schmid, Markus & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2012. "Decomposing Performance," Working Papers on Finance 1216, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Nov 2015.
    5. Auer, Benjamin R. & Rottmann, Horst, 2019. "Have capital market anomalies worldwide attenuated in the recent era of high liquidity and trading activity?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 61-79.
    6. Vogelsang, Timothy J., 2012. "Heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation, and spatial correlation robust inference in linear panel models with fixed-effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 303-319.
    7. Hoechle, Daniel & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2007. "A Generalization of the Calendar Time Portfolio Approach and the Performance of Private Investors," Working papers 2007/14, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    8. Arestis, Philip & Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana Rosa, 2016. "Revisiting the accelerator principle in a world of uncertainty: Some empirical evidence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 35-42.
    9. Jushan Bai & Sung Hoon Choi & Yuan Liao, 2021. "Feasible generalized least squares for panel data with cross-sectional and serial correlations," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 309-326, January.
    10. Öztürk, Gamze & Yetkiner, Hakan & Özden, Elif, 2020. "Macroeconomic determinants of antidepressant use," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1394-1407.
    11. Adeel Ahmad DAR & Taj MUHAMMAD & M. Wasif SIDDIQI, 2020. "Bureaucratic Quality and FDI Inflows Nexus: A South Asian Perspective," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 149-168, September.
    12. Javier Hidalgo & Marcia M Schafgans, 2017. "Inference Without Smoothing for Large Panels with Cross- Sectional and Temporal Dependence," STICERD - Econometrics Paper Series 597, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    13. Yasin Baris Altayligil & Murat Çetrez, 2020. "Macroeconomic, institutional and financial determinants of current account balances: a panel data assessment," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-23, December.
    14. James G. MacKinnon, 2012. "Thirty Years Of Heteroskedasticity-robust Inference," Working Paper 1268, Economics Department, Queen's University.
    15. Hidalgo, Javier & Schafgans, Marcia M. A., 2017. "Inference without smoothing for large panels with cross-sectional and temporal dependence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 87748, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Timothy Conley & Silvia Gonçalves & Christian Hansen, 2018. "Inference with Dependent Data in Accounting and Finance Applications," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 1139-1203, September.
    17. García Cruz Gustavo Adolfo, 2008. "Informalidad regional en Colombia. Evidencia y Determinantes," Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad, Universidad de los Andes - CEDE, February.
    18. Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús, 2013. "Multilateral resistance to migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 79-100.
    19. Linnenluecke, Martina K. & Chen, Xiaoyan & Ling, Xin & Smith, Tom & Zhu, Yushu, 2017. "Research in finance: A review of influential publications and a research agenda," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 188-199.
    20. Niklas Potrafke, 2012. "Political cycles and economic performance in OECD countries: empirical evidence from 1951–2006," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 155-179, January.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tsj:stataj:v:7:y:2007:i:3:p:281-312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum) or (Lisa Gilmore). General contact details of provider: http://www.stata-journal.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.