IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bsl/wpaper/2007-14.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

A Generalization of the Calendar Time Portfolio Approach and the Performance of Private Investors

Author

Listed:
  • Hoechle, Daniel

    (University of Basel)

  • Zimmermann, Heinz

    (University of Basel)

Abstract

We present a regression-based generalization of the calendar time portfolio approach which allowsfor the inclusion of continuous and multivariate investor or firm characteristics in the analysis. Ourmethod is simple to apply and it ensures that the statistical results are heteroscedasticity consistentand robust to very general forms of cross-sectional and temporal dependence. Furthermore, ourregression-based technique also remedies several well-known weaknesses of the traditional calendartime portfolio approach. By considering a new, unique dataset on more than 40,000 Europeanprivate investors, we illustrate empirically that erroneously ignoring cross-sectional dependenceinherent in microeconometric panel data can lead to severely biased statistical results. Moreoverwe use our method to validate some of the most popular hypotheses on the performance of privateinvestors.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoechle, Daniel & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2007. "A Generalization of the Calendar Time Portfolio Approach and the Performance of Private Investors," Working papers 2007/14, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
  • Handle: RePEc:bsl:wpaper:2007/14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://edoc.unibas.ch/61238/1/20180305144309_5a9d496dd02f8.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mitchell, Mark L & Stafford, Erik, 2000. "Managerial Decisions and Long-Term Stock Price Performance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(3), pages 287-329, July.
    2. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    3. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. "On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    4. John D. Lyon & Brad M. Barber & Chih‐Ling Tsai, 1999. "Improved Methods for Tests of Long‐Run Abnormal Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 165-201, February.
    5. Massimo Massa & Andrei Simonov, 2006. "Hedging, Familiarity and Portfolio Choice," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(2), pages 633-685.
    6. Bong‐Chan Kho & René M. Stulz & Francis E. Warnock, 2009. "Financial Globalization, Governance, and the Evolution of the Home Bias," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 597-635, May.
    7. Daniel Dorn & Gur Huberman, 2005. "Talk and Action: What Individual Investors Say and What They Do," Review of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 437-481, December.
    8. Fama, Eugene F., 1998. "Market efficiency, long-term returns, and behavioral finance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 283-306, September.
    9. Michael C. Jensen, 1968. "The Performance Of Mutual Funds In The Period 1945–1964," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 389-416, May.
    10. Goetzmann, William & Massa, Massimo & Simonov, Andrei, 2004. "Portfolio Diversification, Proximity Investment and City Agglomeration," CEPR Discussion Papers 4786, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2000. "Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth: The Common Stock Investment Performance of Individual Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 773-806, April.
    12. Mandelker, Gershon, 1974. "Risk and return: The case of merging firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 303-335, December.
    13. Zoran Ivković & James Poterba & Scott Weisbenner, 2005. "Tax-Motivated Trading by Individual Investors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1605-1630, December.
    14. French, Kenneth R & Poterba, James M, 1991. "Investor Diversification and International Equity Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 222-226, May.
    15. repec:fth:pennfi:68 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Dahlquist, Magnus & Engström, Stefan & Söderlind, Paul, 2000. "Performance and Characteristics of Swedish Mutual Funds," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(3), pages 409-423, September.
    17. Shorrocks, A F, 1975. "The Age-Wealth Relationship: A Cross-Section and Cohort Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 57(2), pages 155-163, May.
    18. Zoran Ivković & Scott Weisbenner, 2005. "Local Does as Local Is: Information Content of the Geography of Individual Investors' Common Stock Investments," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 267-306, February.
    19. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    20. Terrance Odean, 1999. "Do Investors Trade Too Much?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1279-1298, December.
    21. Jaffe, Jeffrey F, 1974. "Special Information and Insider Trading," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(3), pages 410-428, July.
    22. Paul A. Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2003. "The Really Long‐Run Performance of Initial Public Offerings: The Pre‐Nasdaq Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1355-1392, August.
    23. James M. Poterba, 2001. "Demographic Structure And Asset Returns," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 565-584, November.
    24. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    25. Donald B. Keim & Ananth Madhavan, "undated". "The Cost of Institutional Equity Trades," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 08-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    26. Brav, Alon & Gompers, Paul A, 1997. "Myth or Reality? The Long-Run Underperformance of Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Venture and Nonventure Capital-Backed Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1791-1821, December.
    27. Michael Hertzel & Michael Lemmon & James S. Linck & Lynn Rees, 2002. "Long-Run Performance following Private Placements of Equity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2595-2617, December.
    28. B. Espen Eckbo & David C. Smith, 1998. "The Conditional Performance of Insider Trades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 467-498, April.
    29. Lei Feng & Mark S. Seasholes, 2004. "Correlated Trading and Location," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2117-2144, October.
    30. Arellano, M, 1987. "Computing Robust Standard Errors for Within-Groups Estimators," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(4), pages 431-434, November.
    31. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R., 2000. "Uniformly least powerful tests of market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 361-389, March.
    32. Alok Kumar & Charles M.C. Lee, 2006. "Retail Investor Sentiment and Return Comovements," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2451-2486, October.
    33. Leslie A. Jeng & Andrew Metrick & Richard Zeckhauser, 2003. "Estimating the Returns to Insider Trading: A Performance-Evaluation Perspective," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 453-471, May.
    34. Ferson, Wayne E & Schadt, Rudi W, 1996. "Measuring Fund Strategy and Performance in Changing Economic Conditions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(2), pages 425-461, June.
    35. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Drobetz, Wolfgang & Erdmann, Thomas & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2007. "Predictability in the cross-section of European bank stock returns," Working papers 2007/21, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hoechle, Daniel & Schmid, Markus & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2012. "Decomposing Performance," Working Papers on Finance 1216, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Nov 2015.
    2. Hoechle, Daniel & Schmid, Markus & Zimmermann, Heinz, 2017. "Does Unobservable Heterogeneity Matter for Portfolio-Based Asset Pricing Tests?," Working Papers on Finance 1717, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance, revised Mar 2020.
    3. Dionysia Dionysiou, 2015. "Choosing Among Alternative Long-Run Event-Study Techniques," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 158-198, February.
    4. Hoechle, Daniel & Karthaus, Larissa & Schmid, Markus, 2017. "The Long-Term Performance of IPO’s, Revisited," Working Papers on Finance 1706, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    5. Schwert, G. William, 2003. "Anomalies and market efficiency," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 15, pages 939-974, Elsevier.
    6. Abhyankar, Abhay & Ho, Keng-Yu, 2007. "Long-horizon event studies and event firm portfolio weights: Evidence from U.K. rights issues re-visited," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 61-80.
    7. Abhyankar, Abhay & Ho, Keng-Yu, 2006. "Long-run abnormal performance following convertible preference share and convertible bond issues: New evidence from the United Kingdom," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 97-119.
    8. Liang, Woan-lih, 2016. "Sensitivity to investor sentiment and stock performance of open market share repurchases," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 75-94.
    9. Ben-David, Itzhak & Birru, Justin & Rossi, Andrea, 2019. "Industry familiarity and trading: Evidence from the personal portfolios of industry insiders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 132(1), pages 49-75.
    10. Ho, Keng-Yu, 2005. "Long-horizon abnormal performance following rights issues and placings: Additional evidence from the U.K. market," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 25-45.
    11. Eckbo, B. Espen & Norli, Oyvind, 2005. "Liquidity risk, leverage and long-run IPO returns," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 1-35, March.
    12. Magnus Dahlquist & José Vicente Martinez & Paul Söderlind, 2017. "Individual Investor Activity and Performance," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 30(3), pages 866-899.
    13. Daniel, Kent & Hirshleifer, David & Teoh, Siew Hong, 2002. "Investor psychology in capital markets: evidence and policy implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 139-209, January.
    14. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Ho, Kim Wai & Huang, Chia-Wei & Wang, Yanzhi, 2013. "Buyback behavior of initial public offering firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 32-42.
    15. Stotz, Olaf & Wanzenried, Gabrielle & Döhnert, Karsten, 2010. "Open-market purchases of public equity by private equity investors: Size and home-bias effects," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 562-576, November.
    16. Lizińska Joanna & Czapiewski Leszek, 2019. "Long-Term Equity Performance in Poland – Searching for Answers with the Calendar-Time Portfolio Approach," Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, Sciendo, vol. 19(1), pages 43-55, June.
    17. Fischer, Mario, 2017. "The source of financing in mergers and acquisitions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 227-239.
    18. Agnesens, Julius, 2013. "A statistically robust decomposition of mutual fund performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3867-3877.
    19. Hvide, Hans K & Östberg, Per, 2014. "Stock investments at work," CEPR Discussion Papers 9837, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Brav, Alon & Geczy, Christopher & Gompers, Paul A., 2000. "Is the abnormal return following equity issuances anomalous?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 209-249, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Performance measurement; Robust statistical inference; Cross-sectional dependence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bsl:wpaper:2007/14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/wwzbsch.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: WWZ (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/wwzbsch.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.