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Heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation, and spatial correlation robust inference in linear panel models with fixed-effects

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  • Vogelsang, Timothy J.

Abstract

This paper develops an asymptotic theory for test statistics in linear panel models that are robust to heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation and/or spatial correlation. Two classes of standard errors are analyzed. Both are based on nonparametric heteroskedasticity autocorrelation (HAC) covariance matrix estimators. The first class is based on averages of HAC estimators across individuals in the cross-section, i.e. “averages of HACs”. This class includes the well known cluster standard errors analyzed by Arellano (1987) as a special case. The second class is based on the HAC of cross-section averages and was proposed by Driscoll and Kraay (1998). The ”HAC of averages” standard errors are robust to heteroskedasticity, serial correlation and spatial correlation but weak dependence in the time dimension is required. The “averages of HACs” standard errors are robust to heteroskedasticity and serial correlation including the nonstationary case but they are not valid in the presence of spatial correlation. The main contribution of the paper is to develop a fixed-b asymptotic theory for statistics based on both classes of standard errors in models with individual and possibly time fixed-effects dummy variables. The asymptotics is carried out for large time sample sizes for both fixed and large cross-section sample sizes. Extensive simulations show that the fixed-b approximation is usually much better than the traditional normal or chi-square approximation especially for the Driscoll–Kraay standard errors. The use of fixed-b critical values will lead to more reliable inference in practice especially for tests of joint hypotheses.

Suggested Citation

  • Vogelsang, Timothy J., 2012. "Heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation, and spatial correlation robust inference in linear panel models with fixed-effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 166(2), pages 303-319.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:166:y:2012:i:2:p:303-319
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2011.10.001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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