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Student Effort and Performance over the Semester


  • Gregory A. Krohn
  • Catherine M. O'Connor


The authors extend the standard education production function and student time allocation analysis to focus on the interactions between student effort and performance over the semester. The purged instrumental variable technique is used to obtain consistent estimators of the structural parameters of the model using data from intermediate macroeconomics. The results of their study suggest that (1) students respond to higher midterm scores by reducing the number of hours they subsequently allocate to studying for the course; (2) contrary to results based on semester totals, class attendance is not related to examination scores throughout the semester; (3) study time has a small, but statistically significant, negative effect on student performance; and (4) although men outperform women on examinations, the difference may diminish over the course of the semester.

Suggested Citation

  • Gregory A. Krohn & Catherine M. O'Connor, 2005. "Student Effort and Performance over the Semester," The Journal of Economic Education, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 3-28, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jeduce:v:36:y:2005:i:1:p:3-28 DOI: 10.3200/JECE.36.1.3-28

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bruno S. Frey, 2000. "Was Bewirkt die Volkswirtschaftslehre?," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 1(1), pages 5-33, February.
    2. Victor R. Fuchs & Alan B. Krueger & James M. Poterba, 1997. "Why do Economists Disagree About Policy?," NBER Working Papers 6151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Rivlin, Alice M, 1987. "Economics and the Political Process," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 1-10, March.
    4. Robert J. Blendon, 1997. "Bridging the Gap between the Public's and Economists' Views of the Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 105-118, Summer.
    5. Michael Weinstein, 1992. "Economists and the Media," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 73-77, Summer.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bredtmann, Julia & Crede, Carsten J. & Otten, Sebastian, 2013. "Methods for evaluating educational programs: Does Writing Center Participation affect student achievement?," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 115-123.
    2. Hans Bonesrønning & Leiv Opstad, 2012. "How Much is Students' College Performance Affected by Quantity of Study?," International Review of Economic Education, Economics Network, University of Bristol, vol. 11(2), pages 46-63.
    3. Arulampalam, Wiji & Naylor, Robin A. & Smith, Jeremy, 2012. "Am I missing something? The effects of absence from class on student performance," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 363-375.
    4. Robert Metcalfe & Simon Burgess and Steven Proud, 2011. "Student effort and educational attainment: Using the England football team to identify the education production function," Economics Series Working Papers 586, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    5. Göke, Michael, 2008. "Homo oeconomicus im Hörsaal: Die Rationalität studentischer Nebengespräche in Lehrveranstaltungen," Arbeitspapiere der FOM 9, FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management.
    6. Mª Covadonga de la Iglesia Villasol & Esperanza Gracia Expósito, 2010. "Valoración de los profesores y asistencia a clase de los alumnos ¿existe relación causal?," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5,in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Gregorio Gim (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 50, pages 995-1016 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    7. Leonard c. Smith, 2009. "An Analysis Of The Impact Of Pedagogic Interventions In First-Year Academic Development And Mainstream Courses In Microeconomics," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 77(1), pages 162-178, March.
    8. Pm Horn & Ai Jansen, 2009. "An Investigation Into The Impact Of Tutorials On The Performance Of Economics Students," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 77(1), pages 179-189, March.
    9. Onji, Kazuki, 2013. "Estimating the effects of procrastination on performance: A small sample study," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 85-90.
    10. Adrian Chadi & Marco de Pinto & Gabriel Schultze, 2017. "Young, Gifted and Lazy? The Role of Ability and Labor Market Prospects in Student Effort Decisions," IAAEU Discussion Papers 201705, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).
    11. Diego Dueñas Fernández & Carlos Iglesias Fernández & Raquel Llorente Heras, 2011. "La gestión del tiempo de ocio y estudio por parte de los jóvenes: ¿cómo afectan las nuevas tecnologías?," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6,in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 6, pages 101-117 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    12. Lee E. Erickson & Patricia A. Erickson, 2013. "Predicting Student Performance Using Online One-Minute Papers," Journal for Economic Educators, Middle Tennessee State University, Business and Economic Research Center, vol. 13(1), pages 6-13, Fall.
    13. repec:zbw:rwirep:0275 is not listed on IDEAS

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