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From OLI to OLMA: Incorporating Higher Levels of Environmental and Structural Complexity into the Eclectic Paradigm

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  • Stephen Guisinger

Abstract

Theorists using the eclectic paradigm have drastically restricted their analytic scope to the firm and its subsidiaries, rarely exploring more finely grained firm structures, such as business processes. By contrast, organisational theorists examining multinational firm behaviour have employed a richly differentiated array of firm structural forms though without developing a precise delineation of the international business environment. Eclectic researchers are adept at handling environmental, but not structural, complexity, while the reverse seems true for organisational theorists. This study extends the eclectic paradigm by incorporating higher levels of environmental and structural complexity through two methods: (1) a deconstruction of the multinational firm into business processes; and (2) a more complete definition of the international business environment, called geovalent elements. The paper argues that an enhanced eclectic paradigm called OLMA (for Ownership, Location, Mode of entry, and Adjustment) provides the complete set of concepts needed for studying the modern multinational firm.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen Guisinger, 2001. "From OLI to OLMA: Incorporating Higher Levels of Environmental and Structural Complexity into the Eclectic Paradigm," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 257-272.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ijecbs:v:8:y:2001:i:2:p:257-272
    DOI: 10.1080/13571510110051487
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Nuno Rosa Reis & Manuel Portugal Ferreira & João Carvalho Santos, 2013. "A bibliometric study of the cultural models in International Business research," Working Papers 104, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    2. Ferreira, Manuel Portugal & Li, Dan & Guisinger, Stephen & Serra, Fernando A. Ribeiro, 2009. "Será o ambiente internacional de negócios o contexto efetivo para a pesquisa em negócios internacionais?," RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV-EAESP Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (Brazil), vol. 49(3), July.
    3. repec:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:5:p:867-880 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Katiuscia Vaccarini, 2014. "Psychic distance and FDI: the case of China," Working Papers 1403, c.MET-05 - Centro Interuniversitario di Economia Applicata alle Politiche per L'industria, lo Sviluppo locale e l'Internazionalizzazione.
    5. repec:spr:manint:v:50:y:2010:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-010-0060-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. de Matías Batalla, David, 2016. "The new paradigm of international production: Empirical evidence of Spanish offshoring activities," Economics Discussion Papers 2016-37, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    7. Scott-Kennel, Joanna & Enderwick, Peter, 2004. "Inter-firm alliance and network relationships and the eclectic paradigm of international production: an exploratory analysis of quasi-internalisation at the subsidiary level," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 425-445, August.
    8. Kinra, Aseem & Kotzab, Herbert, 2008. "A macro-institutional perspective on supply chain environmental complexity," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 283-295, October.
    9. Stoian, Carmen & Filippaios, Fragkiskos, 2008. "Dunning's eclectic paradigm: A holistic, yet context specific framework for analysing the determinants of outward FDI: Evidence from international Greek investments," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 349-367, June.
    10. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Dan Li & Yong Suk Jang, 2007. "Foreign Entry Strategies: Strategic Adaptation To Various Facets Of The Institutional Environment," Working Papers 3, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    11. AKBAR Minhas & AKBAR Ahsan, 2015. "An Empirical Analysis Of Foreign Direct Investment In Pakistan," Studies in Business and Economics, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 10(1), pages 5-15, April.
    12. repec:spr:manint:v:53:y:2013:i:6:d:10.1007_s11575-013-0180-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Sethi, Deepak & Guisinger, Stephen, 2002. "Liability of foreignness to competitive advantage: How multinational enterprises cope with the international business environment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 223-240.
    14. repec:spr:manint:v:49:y:2009:i:2:d:10.1007_s11575-008-0133-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Edith Anzo Múnera, 2012. "Negocios internacionales: evolución, consolidación e identificación de los temas que lideran el campo de investigación," REVISTA CIENCIAS ESTRATÉGICAS, UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA BOLIVARIANA, June.
    16. Li, Sali & Tallman, Stephen B. & Ferreira, Manuel P., 2005. "Developing the eclectic paradigm as a model of global strategy: An application to the impact of the Sep. 11 terrorist attacks on MNE performance levels," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 479-496, December.
    17. Han, I & Liang, Hsin-Yu & Chan, Kam C., 2016. "Locational concentration and institutional diversification: Evidence from foreign direct investments in the banking industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 185-199.
    18. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Fernando A. Ribeiro Serra, 2008. "The impact of strategic resource seeking and market seeking strategies on foreign entry modes under institutional pressures," Working Papers 23, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    19. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Dan Li & Stephen Guisinger, 2007. "Is the 'International Business Environment' the Actual Context for IB Research?," Working Papers 2, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    20. Li, Gang & Yang, Hongjiao & Sun, Linyan & Ji, Ping & Feng, Lei, 2010. "The evolutionary complexity of complex adaptive supply networks: A simulation and case study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(2), pages 310-330, April.
    21. George Anastassopoulos & Fragkiskos Filippaios & Paul Phillips, 2007. "An ‘eclectic’ investigation of tourism multinationals’ activities: Evidence from the Hotels and Hospitality Sector in Greece," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 08, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
    22. repec:spr:manint:v:48:y:2008:i:1:d:10.1007_s11575-008-0003-2 is not listed on IDEAS

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