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The Demand For Military Expenditure: Evidence From The Eu15 (1961-2005)


  • Eftychia Nikolaidou


In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies that investigate the economic effects of military spending using a variety of estimation methods and focusing either on individual countries or on groups of relatively homogeneous countries. The situation is not the same as far as the demand for military expenditure is concerned, where less attention has been given and the majority of empirical studies have focused on individual countries, with only a few focusing on groups of countries and employing cross-sectional or panel data approaches. A region that has not attracted any research interest regarding the determinants of military expenditure is the European Union (EU) with the exception of individual country studies (mainly for the UK, Greece, France, Spain, Portugal). This paper argues that understanding the determinants of military spending in these countries is very important, especially given the discussions in recent years towards the development of a Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP). It then follows Dunne et al. (2003) and employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration to estimate a general model of aggregate defence spending for each of the 15 core EU countries over the period 1961-2005. The findings indicate that there is very little uniformity in the factors that determine each country's demand for military expenditure, something that needs to be borne in mind by policy makers when burden-sharing issues are considered in the development of the CESDP.

Suggested Citation

  • Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2008. "The Demand For Military Expenditure: Evidence From The Eu15 (1961-2005)," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 273-292.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:19:y:2008:i:4:p:273-292
    DOI: 10.1080/10242690802166533

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), 2007. "Handbook of Defense Economics," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 2, number 1.
    2. Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), 1995. "Handbook of Defense Economics," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yasmine M. Abdelfattah & Aamer S. Abu-Qarn & J. Paul Dunne & Shadwa Zaher, 2014. "The Demand for Military Spending in Egypt," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 231-245, June.
    2. Aamer S. Abu-Qarn & J Paul Dunne & Yasmine M. Abdelfattah & Shadwa Zaher, 2010. "The Demand for Military Spending in Egypt," Working Papers 1001, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Leitão, Nuno Carlos & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2013. "Should Portuguese economy invest in defense spending? A revisit," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 805-815.
    4. Christos Kollias & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2010. "Growth, investment and military expenditure in the European Union-15," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 228-240, May.
    5. Bove, Vincenzo & Efthyvoulou, Georgios & Navas, Antonio, 2017. "Political cycles in public expenditure: butter vs guns," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 582-604.
    6. Karl Skogstad, 2016. "Defence budgets in the post-Cold War era: a spatial econometrics approach," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 323-352, June.
    7. repec:kap:iaecre:v:18:y:2012:i:3:p:259-270 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2016. "The role of military expenditure and arms imports in the Greek debt crisis," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 11(1), pages 18-27, April.
    9. Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2016. "Greece, Portugal, Spain: New evidence on the economic effects of military expenditure using the new SIPRI data," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 20-27, October.
    10. Albalate, Daniel & Bel, Germà & Elias, Ferran, 2012. "Institutional determinants of military spending," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 279-290.
    11. Christos Kollias & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2016. "Investment, growth, and defense expenditure in the EU15: Revisiting the nexus using SIPRI’s new consistent dataset," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 28-37, October.
    12. Dimitrios Paparas & Christian Richter, 2015. "Military Spending and economic growth in Greece and the Arms Race between Greece and Turkey," Working Papers 38, The German University in Cairo, Faculty of Management Technology.
    13. Mary Michail & Nicholas Papasyriopoulos, 2012. "Investigation of the Greek – Turkish Military Spending Relation," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 18(3), pages 259-270, August.


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