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Three decades of money demand studies: differences and similarities


  • Markus Knell
  • Helmut Stix


By analysing almost 1000 money demand estimations this paper attempts to summarize the diverse findings of the literature on this topic. Using both descriptive statistics and meta-regressions, several stylized facts are derived about the two most prominent determinants of money demand income and interest rate elasticities. In particular, it is shown we show that the size and signs of average elasticities are systematically related to the choice of included variables (e.g. M1 or M3, short-run or long-run interest rates), the country grouping (e.g. USA versus Germany) and the empirical specification (e.g. the inclusion of one or two interest rates).

Suggested Citation

  • Markus Knell & Helmut Stix, 2006. "Three decades of money demand studies: differences and similarities," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(7), pages 805-818.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:38:y:2006:i:7:p:805-818
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840600569377

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jonathan Seaton, 1997. "Neoclassical and collective rationality in household labour supply," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(8), pages 529-533.
    2. John C. Ham, 1982. "Estimation of a Labour Supply Model with Censoring Due to Unemployment and Underemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(3), pages 335-354.
    3. Mueller, Eva, 1984. "The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-3), pages 329-360.
    4. Tim Barmby & Nina Smith, 2001. "Household labour supply in Britain and Denmark: some interpretations using a model of Pareto Optimal behaviour," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(9), pages 1109-1116.
    5. Kooreman, Peter & Kapteyn, Arie, 1987. "A Disaggregated Analysis of the Allocation of Time within the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(2), pages 223-249, April.
    6. Dolton, P J & Makepeace, G H & Van Der Klaauw, W, 1989. "Occupational Choice and Earnings Determination: The Role of Sample Selection and Non-pecuniary Factors," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(3), pages 573-594, July.
    7. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    8. Pierre-Andre Chiappori & Bernard Fortin & Guy Lacroix, 2002. "Marriage Market, Divorce Legislation, and Household Labor Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(1), pages 37-72, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tyers, Rod, 2015. "International effects of China's rise and transition: Neoclassical and Keynesian perspectives," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 1-19.
    2. Egert, Balazs & Halpern, Laszlo, 2006. "Equilibrium exchange rates in Central and Eastern Europe: A meta-regression analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1359-1374, May.
    3. Rod Tyers, 2016. "China and Global Macroeconomic Interdependence," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(11), pages 1674-1702, November.
    4. Fassil Fanta, 2012. "Macroeconomic uncertainty, excess liquidity and stability of money demand (M3) in Australia," International Journal of Monetary Economics and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(4), pages 325-344.
    5. Sahar Bahmani & Ali Kutan, 2010. "How stable is the demand for money in emerging economies?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(26), pages 3307-3318.
    6. Frauke Dobnik, 2013. "Long-run money demand in OECD countries: what role do common factors play?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 89-113, August.
    7. Korhonen, Iikka & Mehrotra, Aaron, 2007. "Money demand in post-crisis Russia : De-dollarisation and re-monetisation," BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2007, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    8. Boriss Siliverstovs, 2008. "Dynamic modelling of the demand for money in Latvia," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 8(1), pages 53-74, October.
    9. Arto Kovanen, 2011. "Does Money Matter for Inflation in Ghana?," IMF Working Papers 11/274, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Frauke Dobnik, 2011. "OLong-run Money Demand in OECD Countries – Cross-Member Cointegration," Ruhr Economic Papers 0237, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    11. Iikka Korhonen & Aaron Mehrotra, 2010. "Money Demand in Post-Crisis Russia: Dedollarization and Remonetization," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(2), pages 5-19, March.
    12. Dobnik, Frauke, 2011. "Long-run Money Demand in OECD Countries – Cross-Member Cointegration," Ruhr Economic Papers 237, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    13. Jarko Fidrmuc, 2009. "Money demand and disinflation in selected CEECs during the accession to the EU," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(10), pages 1259-1267.
    14. repec:zbw:rwirep:0237 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Iikka Korhonen & Aaron Mehrotra, 2010. "Money Demand in Post-Crisis Russia: Dedollarization and Remonetization," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(2), pages 5-19, March.
    16. Arto Kovanen & Jihad Dagher, 2011. "On the Stability of Money Demand in Ghana; A Bounds Testing Approach," IMF Working Papers 11/273, International Monetary Fund.

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