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Price dynamics in an exchange economy

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  • Steven Gjerstad

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Abstract

The pure exchange model is the foundation of the neoclassical theory of value, yet equilibrium predictions and price adjustment dynamics for this model remained untested prior to the experiment reported in this paper. With the exchange economy replicated several times, prices and allocations in most experiment sessions adjust toward the competitive equilibrium in continuous double auction trading, though adjustment is much slower than in previous commodity flow (or perishable good) double auction market experiments. Price adjustment is evaluated by comparing its extent within each market replication (or trading period) to its extent across trading periods. More price adjustment occurs within trading periods than across trading periods, so price adjustment data are evaluated with the disequilibrium Hahn process model (Hahn and Negishi in Econometrica 30:463–469, 1962 ) of within-period trades. This paper introduces a stochastic version the Hahn process model and demonstrates that a linear approximation to this stochastic model yields an autoregressive process with a near unit root when the adjustment rate is low. In effect, the autoregressive price adjustment model studied extensively by time series econometricians over the past 30 years can be viewed as a reduced form of a stochastic disequilibrium exchange economy price adjustment model. Estimation of the model demonstrates that price adjustment in the exchange economy experiment is considerably slower than in economies without income effects, which suggests that the price discovery process may be a significant factor in the slow adjustment documented by applied econometricians. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Steven Gjerstad, 2013. "Price dynamics in an exchange economy," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 52(2), pages 461-500, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:52:y:2013:i:2:p:461-500
    DOI: 10.1007/s00199-011-0651-5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Smith, Vernon L., 2010. "Theory and experiment: What are the questions?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 3-15, January.
    2. Foley, Duncan K., 2010. "What's wrong with the fundamental existence and welfare theorems?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 115-131, August.
    3. Sean Crockett & Ryan Oprea & Charles Plott, 2011. "Extreme Walrasian Dynamics: The Gale Example in the Lab," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(7), pages 3196-3220, December.
    4. John D. Hey & Daniela Di Cagno, 2016. "Does money impede convergence?," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 19(3), pages 595-612, September.
    5. Crockett, Sean & Friedman, Daniel & Oprea, Ryan, 2017. "Aggregation and convergence in experimental general equilibrium economies constructed from naturally occurring preferences," Discussion Papers, Research Professorship Market Design: Theory and Pragmatics SP II 2017-501, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    6. Eric Smith & Duncan Foley & Benjamin Good, 2013. "Unhedgeable shocks and statistical economic equilibrium," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 52(1), pages 187-235, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Competitive equilibrium; Disequilibrium dynamics; Continuous double auction; Experimental economics; Exchange economy; Hahn process; Tatonnement; Time series; Unit root tests; C22; C92; D41; D44; D51;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C92 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Group Behavior
    • D41 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Perfect Competition
    • D44 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Auctions
    • D51 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Exchange and Production Economies

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