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Is real GDP stationary? Evidence from a panel unit root test with cross-sectional dependence and historical data


  • Nektarios Aslanidis


  • Stilianos Fountas



We use historical data that cover more than one century on real GDP for industrial countries and employ the Pesaran panel unit root test that allows for cross-sectional dependence to test for a unit root on real GDP. At first, we find strong evidence against the unit root null. Our results seem to be robust to the chosen group of countries and, in most cases, the sample period. However, the sequential panel selection method reveals that the rejection of the unit root null is due to the stationarity of real GDP in a few countries only. Real GDP is less stationary mostly in fixed exchange rate regimes like the Gold Standard and the Bretton Woods system. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Nektarios Aslanidis & Stilianos Fountas, 2014. "Is real GDP stationary? Evidence from a panel unit root test with cross-sectional dependence and historical data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 101-108, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:46:y:2014:i:1:p:101-108 DOI: 10.1007/s00181-012-0668-z

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    2. Chortareas, Georgios & Kapetanios, George, 2009. "Getting PPP right: Identifying mean-reverting real exchange rates in panels," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 390-404, February.
    3. Snaith, Stuart, 2012. "The PPP debate: Multiple breaks and cross-sectional dependence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 342-344.
    4. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    5. Papell, David H & Prodan, Ruxandra, 2004. "The Uncertain Unit Root in U.S. Real GDP: Evidence with Restricted and Unrestricted Structural Change," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 423-427, June.
    6. Natalie Hegwood & David H. Papell, 2007. "Are Real GDP Levels Trend, Difference, or Regime-Wise Trend Stationary? Evidence from Panel Data Tets Incorporating Structural Change," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 74(1), pages 104-113, July.
    7. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
    8. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    9. David E. Rapach, 2002. "Are Real GDP Levels Nonstationary? Evidence from Panel Data Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 473-495, January.
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    More about this item


    Real GDP stationarity; Cross-sectional dependence; CIPS test; Sequential panel selection method; C23; E32;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles


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