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Encompassing and rational expectations: How sequential corroboration can imply refutation

Author

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  • David F. Hendry

    () (Nuffield College, Oxford, OX1 1NF, UK)

  • Neil R. Ericsson

    () (Stop 24, International Finance Division, Federal Reserve Board, 2000 C Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20551, USA)

Abstract

Even though pieces of empirical evidence individually may corroborate an economic theory, their joint existence may refute that same theory. Testing of rational expectations models provides a concrete illustration of this principle. Surprisingly, empirical refutation of a rational expectations model may occur without having to estimate that model, and the refutation may be for a large class of expectations-based models and not just for a particular model specification. Narrow money demand in the United Kingdom illustrates such refutation. The general proposition concerning corroboration and refutation strongly favors the building of empirical models that are consistent with all available evidence.

Suggested Citation

  • David F. Hendry & Neil R. Ericsson, 1999. "Encompassing and rational expectations: How sequential corroboration can imply refutation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 1-21.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:24:y:1999:i:1:p:1-21
    Note: received: July 1994/final version received: July 1997
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Cuthbertson, Keith, 1988. "The Demand for M1: A Forward Looking Buffer Stock Model," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 110-131, March.
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    4. Hendry, David F. & Richard, Jean-Francois, 1982. "On the formulation of empirical models in dynamic econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 3-33, October.
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    6. Hendry, David F & Mizon, Grayham E, 1978. "Serial Correlation as a Convenient Simplification, not a Nuisance: A Comment on a Study of the Demand for Money by the Bank of England," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(351), pages 549-563, September.
    7. David F. Hendry & Neil R. Ericsson, 1989. "An econometric analysis of UK money demand in MONETARY TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED KINGDOM by Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz," International Finance Discussion Papers 355, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. M. A. Adelman, 1951. "Comment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(2), pages 280-283.
    9. Hendry, David F, 1988. "The Encompassing Implications of Feedback versus Feedforward Mechanisms in Econometrics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(1), pages 132-149, March.
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    11. Davidson, James E H, et al, 1978. "Econometric Modelling of the Aggregate Time-Series Relationship between Consumers' Expenditure and Income in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 88(352), pages 661-692, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jaime R. Marquez & Neil R. Ericsson, 1990. "Evaluating the predictive performance of trade-account models," International Finance Discussion Papers 377, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Ragnar Nymoen & Gunnar Bardsen & Eilev S. Jansen, 2004. "The empirical relevance of the New Keynesian Phillips curve," Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings 328, Econometric Society.
    3. Bårdsen, Gunnar & Jansen, Eilev S. & Nymoen, Ragnar, 2003. "Testing the New Keynesian Phillips curve," Memorandum 18/2002, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    4. Hugo Benítez-Silva & Debra Dwyer & Wayne-Roy Gayle & Thomas Muench, 2008. "Expectations in micro data: rationality revisited," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 381-416, March.
    5. Gunnar Bårdsen & Eilev S. Jansen & Ragnar Nymoen, 2002. "The Empirical (ir)Relevance of the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," Working Paper Series 2102, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    6. Nymoen, Ragnar & Swensen, Anders Rygh & Tveter, Eivind, 2012. "Interpreting the evidence for New Keynesian models of inflation dynamics," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 253-263.
    7. Psaradakis, Zacharias & Sola, Martin, 1996. "On the power of tests for superexogeneity and structural invariance," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 151-175.
    8. Ericsson, Neil R., 1992. "Cointegration, exogeneity, and policy analysis: An overview," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 251-280, June.
    9. Neil R. Ericsson & John S. Irons, 1995. "The Lucas critique in practice: theory without measurement," International Finance Discussion Papers 506, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Luca Fanelli, 2008. "Testing the New Keynesian Phillips Curve Through Vector Autoregressive Models: Results from the Euro Area," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(1), pages 53-66, February.
    11. Cheong, ChongCheul, 2003. "Regime changes and econometric modeling of the demand for money in Korea," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 437-453, May.
    12. Kevin Hoover, 2005. "Economic Theory and Causal Inference," Working Papers 64, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    13. Julia Campos & Neil R. Ericsson, 1999. "Contructive data mining: modeling consumers' expenditure in Venezuela," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(2), pages 226-240.
    14. John S. Irons & N. Ericsson, "undated". "An early version of The Lucas Critique in Practice: Theory without Measurement," Home Pages _004, Massachussets Institute of Technology, Economics.
    15. repec:adr:anecst:y:2002:i:67-68:p:16 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Julia Campos & Neil R. Ericsson & David F. Hendry, 2005. "General-to-specific modeling: an overview and selected bibliography," International Finance Discussion Papers 838, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Conditional models · congruence · corroboration · encompassing · feedback · feedforward · Lucas critique · rational expectations · refutation · statistical inference;

    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • E13 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Neoclassical

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