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Asymetria relacji cen paliw płynnych w Polsce i cen ropy naftowej

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  • Robert Socha

Abstract

Celem artykułu jest próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy w warunkach polskiego rynku paliwowego możemy mówić o istnieniu asymetrii w relacji między cenami paliw a cenami ropy naftowej, a więc sytuacji, w której ceny paliw zmieniają się szybciej, gdy cena surowca na światowym rynku wzrasta, niż gdy spada. W ramach weryfikacji powyższej hipotezy posłużono się analizą kointegracji, a następnie asymetrycznym modelem korekty błędem (Error Correction Model, ECM) oraz modelem ECM z relacją kointegrującą zdefiniowaną w postaci progowej autoregresji TAR (Threshold Autoregressive, TAR lub Momentum Threshold Autoregressive, MTAR). Otrzymane rezultaty pozwalają uznać za wysoce prawdopodobne, iż asymetryczny charakter relacji cen paliw z ceną ropy naftowej dotyczy gazu LPG i oleju napędowego, a nie dotyczy cen benzyny. Szczególnie w przypadku oleju napędowego widoczna jest niemal dwukrotnie szybsza reakcja na wzrost cen ropy naftowej, niż spadek cen surowca. Takie wyniki mogą być tłumaczone na tle różnic cenowych między cenami poszczególnych paliw oraz różnic w strukturze ich odbiorców. Benzyna to paliwo o najwyższym poziomie cen, dla konsumentów stanowi wyznacznik sytuacji na krajowym rynku paliwowym. Wzrost cen ropy naftowej na światowych rynkach obserwowany po 2004 r. przekładał się niemal w całości na coraz to wyższy poziom cen benzyny na stacjach paliw, co z kolei mogło wpłynąć na skłonność konsumentów do poszukiwania informacji na temat różnic cenowych między poszczególnymi sprzedawcami paliw. Sprzedawcy świadomi, iż wśród nabywców benzyny dominują głównie gospodarstwa domowe, mogą szybciej dostosowywać ceny benzyny do zmian zachodzących na rynku, niż w przypadku oleju napędowego, którego nabywcami są głównie podmioty gospodarcze.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert Socha, 2014. "Asymetria relacji cen paliw płynnych w Polsce i cen ropy naftowej," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 5, pages 133-160.
  • Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2014:i:5:p:133-160
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mariusz Kapuściński, 2017. "How far does monetary policy reach? Evidence from factor-augmented vector autoregressions for Poland," NBP Working Papers 273, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ceny; ropa naftowa; paliwa płynne; asymetria; kointegracja;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • Q31 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices

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