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Effet de serre et relations Nord-Sud

Listed author(s):
  • Jean-Marc Burniaux
  • Joaquim Oliveira Martins

[spa] Efecto invernadero y relaciones Norte-Sur : lo que esta en juego y las dificultades de un acuerdo global Para hacer frente a la amenaza de recalentamiento progresivo del clima (efecto invernadero) es preciso implementar una estrategia planetaria de reducciôn de las emanaciones de diôxido de carbono (CO2). Para ser eficaz tal estrategia supone necesariamente la participaciôn de los pafses del Sur. Sin embargo, éstos ûltimos, en su gran mayorîa, subvencionan la demanda de energfa, lo que hace dificilmente realizable un acuerdo global. La eliminaciôn de taies subvenciones podrfa ya permitir la realizaciôn de una parte del objetivo y conducir a esos pafses a ganancias de ingresos reaies. No obstante, la participaciôn de los pafses en vfas de desarrollo a un acuerdo plantea a la vez problemas de eficacidad y de equidad. En efecto, es en los pafses con escasos ingresos, que son grandes consumidores de carbôn, que résulta menos costoso reducir las emanaciones de CO2. Por consiguiente, para Ilegar a un acuerdo global se deben implementar mecanismos de compensaciôn. Una tasa sobre el carbono, comûn a todos los pafses, asociada a transferencias directas o bien un mercado de derechos de contaminaciôn a escala internacional, constituyen estrategias que pueden ser encaradas para lograr un acuerdo a la vez eficiente y equitativo. Sin embargo, su puesta en marcha se verîa contrariada por la amplitud de las transferencias que conllevarfa. [fre] Effet de serre et relations Nord-Sud : enjeux et difficultés d'un accord global Pour faire face à la menace de réchauffement progressif du climat (effet de serre), il faut mettre en oeuvre une stratégie planétaire de réduction des émissions de dioxyde de carbone (CO2). Pour être efficace, une telle stratégie suppose nécessairement la participation des pays du Sud. Cependant, ces derniers subventionnent pour la plupart la demande d'énergie, ce qui rend un accord global difficile à atteindre. L'élimination de ces subventions pourrait déjà réaliser une partie de l'objectif et aboutir à des gains de revenu réel pour ces pays. Néanmoins, la participation des PVD à un accord pose à la fois des problèmes d'efficacité et d'équité. En effet, c'est dans les pays à faible revenu gros consommateurs de charbon qu'il est le moins coûteux à la marge de réduire les émissions de CO2. Dès lors, pour aboutir à un accord global on doit mettre en place des mécanismes de compensation. Une taxe sur le carbone commune à tous les pays associée à des transferts directs, ou encore un marché des droits à polluer à l'échelle internationale, sont des stratégies envisageables pour aboutir à un accord à la fois efficient et équitable. Cependant, leur mise en oeuvre serait contrariée par l'ampleur des transferts qui leur seraient associés. [eng] The Greenhouse Effect and North-South Relations : Opportunities for and Threats to a Global Agreement A planetary strategy to reduce CO2 emissions needs to be introduced in order to tackle the threat of gradual climatic warming (the greenhouse effect). If such a strategy is to be effective, it necessarily implies the participation of the Southern countries. However, the majority of these countries subsidize the energy demand. This makes it difficult to come to a global agreement. The elimination of such subsidies could fulfil part of the objective and provide gains in real income for these countries. Nevertheless, the developing countries' involvement in an agreement raises problems of efficiency and equity. In fact, the marginal cost of reducing CO2 emissions is lower in the countries with low incomes that are high consumers of coal. Consequently, a cost effective agreement must include the Southern countries but compensation mechanisms need to be set up in order to achieve it. A common tax on coal for all countries in association with direct transfers or an international emissions trading market are both conceivable strategies in the search for an efficient and fair agreement. However, their implementation would be impeded by the magnitude of associated transfers.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/estat.1992.5693
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/estat_0336-1454_1992_num_258_1_5693
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 258 (1992)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 55-68

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1992_num_258_1_5693
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1992.5693
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/estat

References listed on IDEAS
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  1. Thomas Rutherford, 1992. "The Welfare Effects of Fossil Carbon Restrictions: Results from a Recursively Dynamic Trade Model," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 112, OECD Publishing.
  2. Jean-Marc Burniaux & John P. Martin & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Joaquim Oliveira Martins, 1992. "GREEN a Multi-Sector, Multi-Region General Equilibrium Model for Quantifying the Costs of Curbing CO2 Emissions: A Technical Manual," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 116, OECD Publishing.
  3. Andrew Dean & Peter Hoeller, 1992. "Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Six Global Models," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 122, OECD Publishing.
  4. Jean-Marc Burniaux & John P. Martin & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Joaquim Oliveira Martins, 1992. "The Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions: A Technical Manual," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 115, OECD Publishing.
  5. Joaquim Oliveira Martins & Jean-Marc Burniaux & John P. Martin & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 1992. "The Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions: A Comparison of Carbon Tax Curves with GREEN," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 118, OECD Publishing.
  6. D. W. Barns & J. A. Edmonds & J. M. Reilly, 1992. "Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to Model Energy-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 113, OECD Publishing.
  7. Alan S. Manne, 1992. "Global 2100: Alternative Scenarios for Reducing Carbon Emissions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 111, OECD Publishing.
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