Poverty, Gender, and Primary School Enrolment in Pakistan
Primary education is at the base of the pyramid of education, and is regarded as a fundamental human right today. In addition, it has several tangible social and economic effects. As an essential component of human capital, primary education plays an important role in the economic growth and development of a country.1 Its impact on several other socioeconomic variables has also been documented in the literature. To quote a few examples, Butt (1984) has found that five or more years of a farmer’s education lead to increased farm productivity, reduced use of farm labour, and increased use of yield augmenting inputs. Azhar (1988) also reports a significant relationship between the number of years of schooling and increase in farm output due to increased technical efficiency. Studies of the rates of returns to education attribute a positive value to the rate of returns to primary education.2 This means that by acquiring primary education one can increase one’s earnings. Every policy document prepared by the Government of Pakistan aims at attaining universal primary education. However, it is also true that each of these documents has advanced the date for achieving the target specified in the previous one. The net enrolment rates at the primary level show that we are still far from this target.
Volume (Year): 38 (1999)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
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- George Psacharopoulos, 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 583-604.
- Hamilton, Bruce W., 1983. "The flypaper effect and other anomalies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 347-361, December.
- Nadeem Ul Haque, 1977. "An Economic Analysis of Personal Earnings in Rawalpindi City," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 16(4), pages 353-382.
- Shahnaz Hamid, 1993. "A Micro Analysis of Demand-side Determinants of Schooling in Urban Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 713-723.
- Khalil A. Hamdani, 1977. "Education and the Income Differential. An Estimation for Rawalpindi City," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 16(2), pages 144-164.
- Nadeem A. Burney & Mohammad Irfan, 1991. "Parental Characteristics, Supply of Schools, and Child School-enrolment in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 21-62.
- Colclough, Christopher, 1982. "The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 167-185, March.
- Richard H. Sabot, 1992. "Human Capital Accumulation in Post Green Revolution Rural Pakistan: A Progress Report," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 449-490.
- Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
- Zeba A. Sathar & Cynthia B. Lloyd, 1994. "Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities among and within Families," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 103-134.