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Poverty, Gender, and Primary School Enrolment in Pakistan

  • G. M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Najam US Saqib

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • G. M. Zahid

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Primary education is at the base of the pyramid of education, and is regarded as a fundamental human right today. In addition, it has several tangible social and economic effects. As an essential component of human capital, primary education plays an important role in the economic growth and development of a country.1 Its impact on several other socioeconomic variables has also been documented in the literature. To quote a few examples, Butt (1984) has found that five or more years of a farmer’s education lead to increased farm productivity, reduced use of farm labour, and increased use of yield augmenting inputs. Azhar (1988) also reports a significant relationship between the number of years of schooling and increase in farm output due to increased technical efficiency. Studies of the rates of returns to education attribute a positive value to the rate of returns to primary education.2 This means that by acquiring primary education one can increase one’s earnings. Every policy document prepared by the Government of Pakistan aims at attaining universal primary education. However, it is also true that each of these documents has advanced the date for achieving the target specified in the previous one. The net enrolment rates at the primary level show that we are still far from this target.

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Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 38 (1999)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 979-992

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:38:y:1999:i:4:p:979-992
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  1. repec:pid:journl:v:16:y:1977:i:2:p:144-164 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
  3. George Psacharopoulos, 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 583-604.
  4. Colclough, Christopher, 1982. "The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 167-185, March.
  5. repec:pid:journl:v:16:y:1977:i:4:p:353-382 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Hamilton, Bruce W., 1983. "The flypaper effect and other anomalies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 347-361, December.
  7. repec:pid:journl:v:31:y:1992:i:4:p:449-490 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. repec:pid:journl:v:32:y:1993:i:4:p:713-723 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. repec:pid:journl:v:33:y:1994:i:2:p:103-134 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. repec:pid:journl:v:30:y:1991:i:1:p:21-62 is not listed on IDEAS
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