A Critical Assessment of Free Public Schooling in Pakistan
Pakistan appeared on the map of the earth on August 14, 1947 as the British left the Indian subcontinent. The World Bank (1992) classifies Pakistan as a low income country on the basis of its per capita GNP. It is the ninth most populous and perhaps one of the fastest growing nations of the world. Unfortunately, Pakistan has also been one of the most illiterate countries of the world. Statistics collected four years after independence show that 86 percent people at that time could not read or write in any language. Taking note of this disturbing situation, almost all the relevant government documents ranging from the reports of various commissions formed to reform education to policy documents like five year plans emphasise eradication of mass illiteracy and provision of universal primary education as an objective of public policy. Free education for all has been traditionally advocated as a policy which would sooner or later achieve these goals. This policy has also been considered desirable from the view point of equity and social justice. At the time of independence, almost all the schools in the rural areas were public schools which charged only nominal tuition. In the urban areas a few private schools usually run by religious or community organisations could also be found. In October 1972, all the private schools were nationalised and education up to tenth grade was made free. Opening of private schools was again allowed in 1979. With this began an era of expensive private schools, particularly in the urban areas, existing side by side with low quality free public schools.
Volume (Year): 37 (1998)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000|
Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- RAUF A AzHAR, 1988. "Education and Technical Efficie," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 687-697.
- Zeba Ayesha Sathar, 1984. "Does Female Education Affect Fertility Behaviour in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 23(4), pages 573-590.
- Naushin Mahmood & G. M. Zahid, 1992. "Measuring the Education Gap in Primary and Secondary Schooling in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 729-740.
- Nadeem Ul Haque, 1977. "An Economic Analysis of Personal Earnings in Rawalpindi City," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 16(4), pages 353-382.
- Colclough, Christopher, 1982. "The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 167-185, March.
- Muhammad Hussain Malik & Najam Us Saqib, 1989. "Tax Incidence by Income Classes in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 13-26.
- Shahrukh Rafi Khan & Mohammad Irfan, 1985. "Rates of Returns to Education and the Determinants of Earnings in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 24(3-4), pages 671-683.
- Khalil A. Hamdani, 1977. "Education and the Income Differential. An Estimation for Rawalpindi City," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 16(2), pages 144-164.
- Muhammad Hussain Malik & Najam-Us-Saqib, 1985. "Who Bears the Burden of Federal Taxes in Pakistan?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 24(3-4), pages 497-509.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:37:y:1998:i:4:p:955-976. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.