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Determinants of the Negative Impact of Being Landlocked on Trade: An Empirical Investigation Through the Central Asian Case

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  • Gaël Raballand

    () (ROSES, Sorbonne University, 106-112 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.)

Abstract

In this paper, the impact of land-lockedness on trade is estimated for a panel database using a gravity approach. By first examining Central Asian economies, it appears that land-lockedness implies a high transport cost burden. In a second step, the impact of land-lockedness on trade has been measured using four measures of being landlocked: the first estimation is obtained by introducing a dummy variable, the second estimate uses the shortest distance between a land-locked country and the nearest major port facility, the third measure represents the number of borders with coastal countries and the fourth is the number of national borders crossed. From over 10,000 observations, using a sample of 46 countries over a 5-year period, we conclude that being landlocked would reduce trade by more than 80% when measured by a dummy variable. Using the Cheng and Wall econometric approach, we find that the four measures are confirmed empirically. Finally, evidence shows that the number of border-crossings, which implies a transport cost burden, can explain a major part of the extra cost of overland transport in comparison with maritime transport. Comparative Economic Studies (2003) 45, 520–536. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ces.8100031

Suggested Citation

  • Gaël Raballand, 2003. "Determinants of the Negative Impact of Being Landlocked on Trade: An Empirical Investigation Through the Central Asian Case," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 45(4), pages 520-536, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:compes:v:45:y:2003:i:4:p:520-536
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. MacKellar, Landis & Woergoetter, Andreas & Woerz, Julia, 2000. "Economic Development Problems of Landlocked Countries," Transition Economics Series 14, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    2. I-Hui Cheng & Howard J. Wall, 2005. "Controlling for heterogeneity in gravity models of trade and integration," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 49-63.
    3. K. Smarzynska, Beata, 2001. "Does Relative Location Matter for Bilateral Trade Flows? An Extension of the Gravity Model," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 16, pages 379-398.
    4. John Luke Gallup & Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Mellinger, 1999. "Geography and Economic Development," CID Working Papers 1, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    5. Bougheas, Spiros & Demetriades, Panicos O. & Morgenroth, Edgar L. W., 1999. "Infrastructure, transport costs and trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 169-189, February.
    6. Egger, Peter, 2000. "A note on the proper econometric specification of the gravity equation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 25-31, January.
    7. Gallup, J.L. & Sachs, J.D. & Mullinger, A., 1999. "Geography and Economic Development," Papers 1, Chicago - Graduate School of Business.
    8. James E. Anderson & Douglas Marcouiller, 1999. "Trade, Insecurity, and Home Bias: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7000, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pomfret, Richard, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Kazakhstan," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48360, World Bank.
    2. Shepherd, Ben & Wilson, John S., 2006. "Road infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia : does network quality affect trade ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4104, The World Bank.
    3. Pomfret, Richard, 2005. "Trade policies in Central Asia after EU enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and integration into the world economy," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 32-58, March.
    4. Arman Mazhikeyev & T.Huw Edwards, 2013. "Central Asian Trade Relations in the Post-Soviet Era," Discussion Paper Series 2013_02, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Jun 2013.
    5. Haq, Zahoor Ul & Meilke, Karl D. & Cranfield, John A.L., 2011. "The Gravity Model and the Problem of Zero`s in Agrifood Trade," Working Papers 116851, Canadian Agricultural Trade Policy Research Network.
    6. Kurmanalieva, Elvira & Vinokurov, Evgeny, 2011. "Holding together or falling apart:Results of gravity equation of the CIS trade," MPRA Paper 32003, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Richard Frensch, 2008. "Trade liberalisation, adoption costs, and import margins in CEEC and OECD trade," Working Papers 269, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
    8. Christensen, Garry & Pomfret, Richard, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in the Kyrgyz Republic," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48361, World Bank.
    9. Celbis, Mehmet Güney & Nijkamp, Peter & Poot, Jacques, 2013. "How big is the impact of infrastructure on trade? Evidence from meta-analysis," MERIT Working Papers 032, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    10. Christ, Nannette & Ferrantino, Michael J., 2011. "Land Transport for Export: The Effects of Cost, Time, and Uncertainty in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1749-1759.

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