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Economic Development Problems of Landlocked Countries


  • MacKellar, Landis

    (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA))

  • Woergoetter, Andreas

    (Institute for Advanced Studies and CEPR, London)

  • Woerz, Julia

    (Institute for Advanced Studies)


Do landlocked countries face special economic development problems? Whereas traditional neoclassical theory is ambiguous, more recent directions in trade theory and the theory of economic growth suggest reasons why landlocked countries might be at a disadvantage. Our empirical evidence confirms the hypothesis that landlocked countries experience slower economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • MacKellar, Landis & Woergoetter, Andreas & Woerz, Julia, 2000. "Economic Development Problems of Landlocked Countries," Transition Economics Series 14, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:ihs:ihstep:14

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Milner, Chris & Westaway, Tony, 1993. "Country size and the medium-term growth process: Some cross-country evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 203-211, February.
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    3. Frank Barry, 1996. "Peripherality in Economic Geography and Modern Growth Theory: Evidence from Ireland's Adjustment to Free Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 345-365, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gaël Raballand, 2003. "Determinants of the Negative Impact of Being Landlocked on Trade: An Empirical Investigation Through the Central Asian Case," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 45(4), pages 520-536, December.
    2. Ramesh C. Paudel, 2014. "Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Is Landlockedness Destiny?," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 33(4), pages 339-361, December.
    3. Thomas Snow, Michael Faye, John McArthur and Jeffrey Sachs, 2003. "Country case studies on the challenges facing landlocked developing countries," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-2003-11, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
    4. Burgoa, Rodrigo, 2011. "Consecuencias económicas del enclaustramiento marítimo sobre las exportaciones bolivianas
      [Landlockedness Economic Impact upon Bolivian Exports]
      ," MPRA Paper 59904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Jean-François Arvis & Gaël Raballand & Jean-François Marteau, 2010. "The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2489, June.
    6. Sandra Poncet, 2006. "Economic Integration of Yunnan with the Greater Mekong Subregion ," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 20(3), pages 303-317, September.
    7. Lahiri, Bidisha & Masjidi, Feroz K., 2012. "Landlocked Countries: A Way to Integrate with Coastal Economies," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 27, pages 505-519.
    8. Raballand, Gael & Kunaka, Charles & Giersing, Bo, 2008. "The impact of regional liberalization and harmonization in road transport services : a focus on Zambia and lessons for landlocked countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4482, The World Bank.
    9. Diao, Xinshen & Fan, Shenggen & Headey, Derek & Johnson, Michael & Nin Pratt, Alejandro & Yu, Bingxin, 2008. "Accelerating Africa's food production in response to rising food prices: Impacts and requisite actions," IFPRI discussion papers 825, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Abhishek Chakravarty & Matthias Parey & Greg C. Wright, 2017. "The Human Capital Legacy of a Trade Embargo," 2017 Papers pch906, Job Market Papers.
    11. Cárcamo-Díaz, Rodrigo, 2004. "Towards development in landlocked economies," Macroeconomía del Desarrollo 29, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    12. Michael Faye & John McArthur & Jeffrey Sachs & Thomas Snow, 2004. "The Challenges Facing Landlocked Developing Countries," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 31-68.
    13. Amin, Mohammad & Kuntchev, Veselin & Schmidt, Martin, 2015. "Gender inequality and growth: the case of rich vs. poor countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7172, The World Bank.
    14. Charles Kunaka, 2011. "Logistics in Lagging Regions : Overcoming Local Barriers to Global Connectivity," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2543, June.
    15. Sen, S. K. & Mukhopadhyay, I & Gupta, S, 2011. "Optimal pricing policy of continental transit route: a study of Kolkata-Agartala transit route," MPRA Paper 41005, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Apr 2012.
    16. Sen, S. K. & Mukhopadhyay, I & Gupta, S, 2011. "A Game Theoretic Analysis of a Regional Approach toward the Sustainability of Kolkata-Agartala Transit Route," MPRA Paper 39118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. William Byrd & Martin Raiser, 2006. "Economic Cooperation in the Wider Central Asia Region," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6969, June.
    18. Chandra, Vandana & Osorio Rodarte, Israel, 2009. "Options for Income-Enhancing Diversification in Burkina Faso," MPRA Paper 20928, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Economic growth; Geography; Trade; Landlocked;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development


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