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Does Agricultural Extension Pay? The Training and Visit System in Northwest India


  • Gershon Feder
  • Roger H. Slade
  • Lawrence J. Lau


The paper presents the results from a study of the effect of the Training and Visit (T&V) System of agricultural extension on farm productivity. Two adjacent areas in northwest India, one with T&V extension and one with an older system, are compared, utilizing farm-level data. Econometric analysis demonstrates that the T&V area had a wheat yield advantage of 9.33% after four years of T&V extension. The baseline yield differential was calculated as 3.01%. The gain attributable to T&V is shown to imply a return of at least 15% to the incremental investment in extension with high probability.

Suggested Citation

  • Gershon Feder & Roger H. Slade & Lawrence J. Lau, 1987. "Does Agricultural Extension Pay? The Training and Visit System in Northwest India," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 69(3), pages 677-686.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:69:y:1987:i:3:p:677-686.

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    Cited by:

    1. Fishman, Ram & Smith, Stephen C. & Bobic, Vida & Sulaiman, Munshi, 2019. "Can Agricultural Extension and Input Support Be Discontinued? Evidence from a Randomized Phaseout in Uganda," IZA Discussion Papers 12476, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Tambo, Justice A. & Uzayisenga, Bellancile & Mugambi, Idah & Bundi, Mary & Silvestri, Silvia, 2020. "Plant clinics, farm performance and poverty alleviation: Panel data evidence from Rwanda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    3. Richard Sebaggala & Fred Matovu, 2020. "Effects of Agricultural Extension Services on Farm Productivity in Uganda," Working Papers 379, African Economic Research Consortium, Research Department.
    4. Byerlee, Derek, 1990. "Technical Change, Productivity, and Sustainability in Irrigated Cropping Systems of South Asia: Emerging Issues in the Post-Green Revolution Era," Economics Working Papers 232451, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    5. Byerlee, Derek, 1990. "Technical Change, Productivity, and Sustainability in Irrigated Wheat Systems of Asia: Emerging Issues," 1990 Annual meeting, August 5-8, Vancouver, Canada 270921, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    6. Sial, Maqbool H. & Carter, Michael R., 1992. "Is Targeted Small Farm Credit Necessary? A Microeconometric Analysis of Capital Market Efficiency in the Punjab," Staff Papers 200562, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    7. Carter, Michael R. & Tjernström, Emilia & Toledo, Patricia, 2019. "Heterogeneous impact dynamics of a rural business development program in Nicaragua," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 77-98.
    8. Bala, Brij & Sharma, S.D. & Sharma, R.K., 2006. "Knowledge and Adoption Level of Improved Technology among Rural Women owing to Extension Programmes," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 19(2), July.

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