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The rise and fall of training and visit extension : an Asian mini-drama with an African epilogue

Author

Listed:
  • Anderson, Jock R.
  • Feder, Gershon
  • Ganguly, Sushma

Abstract

The paper reviews the origins and evolution of the Training and Visit (T&V) extension system, which was promoted by the World Bank in 1975-98 in over 50 developing countries. The discussion seeks to clarify the context within which the approach was implemented, and to analyze the causes for its lack of sustainability and its ultimate abandonment. The paper identifies some of the challenges faced by the T&V approach as being typical of a large public extension system, where issues of scale, interaction with the agricultural research systems, inability to attribute benefits, weak accountability, and lack of political support tend to lead to incentive problems among staff and managers of extension, and limited budgetary resources. The different incentives and outlook of domestic stakeholders and external donor agencies are also reviewed. The main cause of the T&V system's disappearance is attributed to the incompatibility of its high recurrent costs with the limited budgets available domestically, leading to fiscal unsustainability. The paper concludes with some lessons that apply to donor-driven public extension initiatives, and more generally to rural development fads. The role of timely, independent, and rigorous evaluative studiesis specifically highlighted.

Suggested Citation

  • Anderson, Jock R. & Feder, Gershon & Ganguly, Sushma, 2006. "The rise and fall of training and visit extension : an Asian mini-drama with an African epilogue," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3928, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3928
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martens,Bertin & Mummert,Uwe & Murrell,Peter & Seabright,Paul, 2008. "The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521055390, April.
    2. Picciotto, Robert & Anderson, Jock R, 1997. "Reconsidering Agricultural Extension," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(2), pages 249-259, August.
    3. Birkhaeuser, Dean & Evenson, Robert E & Feder, Gershon, 1991. "The Economic Impact of Agricultural Extension: A Review," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(3), pages 607-650, April.
    4. Jock R. Anderson, 2004. "Agricultural Extension: Good Intentions and Hard Realities," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 19(1), pages 41-60.
    5. Feder, Gershon & Slade, Roger H, 1986. "The Impact of Agricultural Extension: The Training and Visit System in India," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 1(2), pages 139-161, July.
    6. Bindlish, V. & Evenson, R., 1993. "Evaluation of the Performance of T&V Extension in Kenya," Papers 208, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    7. Anderson, Jock R. & Feder, Gershon, 2007. "Agricultural Extension," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier.
    8. Hussain, Syed Sajidin & Byerlee, Derek R. & Heisey, Paul W., 1994. "Impacts of the training and visit extension system on farmers' knowledge and adoption of technology: Evidence from Pakistan," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 10(1), January.
    9. Hussain, Syed Sajidin & Byerlee, Derek & Heisey, Paul W., 1994. "Impacts of the training and visit extension system on farmers' knowledge and adoption of technology: Evidence from Pakistan," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 39-47, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fernando López & Alessandro Maffioli, 2008. "Technology Adoption, Productivity and Specialization of Uruguayan Breeders: Evidence from an Impact Evaluation," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 3014, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Friis-Hansen, Esbern & Duveskog, Deborah, 2012. "The Empowerment Route to Well-being: An Analysis of Farmer Field Schools in East Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 414-427.
    3. Birner, Regina & Davis, Kristin & Pender, John & Nkonya, Ephraim & Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah & Ekboir, Javier & Mbabu, Adiel & Spielman, David & Horna, Daniela & Benin, Samuel & Cohen, Marc J., 2006. "From "best practice" to "best fit": a framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide," FCND discussion papers 210, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Ortiz, Oscar & Orrego, Ricardo & Pradel, Willy & Gildemacher, Peter & Castillo, Renee & Otiniano, Ronal & Gabriel, Julio & Vallejo, Juan & Torres, Omar & Woldegiorgis, Gemebredin & Damene, Belew & Kak, 2013. "Insights into potato innovation systems in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 73-83.
    5. José Miguel Benavente & Gustavo Crespi & Alessandro Maffioli, 2007. "The Impact of National Research Funds: An Evaluation of the Chilean FONDECYT," OVE Working Papers 0307, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
    6. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh C, 2011. "Decentralization of public-sector agricultural extension in India: The case of the district-level Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA)," IFPRI discussion papers 1067, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Jeffery Bentley & Eric Boa & Solveig Danielsen & Pablo Franco & Olivia Antezana & Bertho Villarroel & Henry Rodríguez & Jhon Ferrrufino & Javier Franco & René Pereira & Jaime Herbas & Oscar Díaz & Vla, 2009. "Plant health clinics in Bolivia 2000—2009: operations and preliminary results," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 1(3), pages 371-386, September.
    8. Birner, Regina & Anderson, Jock R., 2007. "How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy," IFPRI discussion papers 729, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh & Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo, 2010. "Review of agricultural extension in India: Are farmers' information needs being met?," IFPRI discussion papers 1048, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Smale, Melinda & Byerlee, Derek & Jayne, Thom S., 2011. "Maize Revolutions in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 202592, Egerton University, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development.
    11. Jenny C. Aker, 2011. " Dial “A” for Agriculture: A Review of Information and Communication Technologies for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries - Working Paper 269," Working Papers 269, Center for Global Development.

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