Who exports in Hungary? Export concentration by corporate size and foreign ownership, and the effect of foreign ownership on export orientation
In the United States and most European countries, the majority of export is concentrated in a small number of firms. The Hungarian Tax and Financial Control Administration’s data (APEH-panel)2 indicate that Hungarian industrial export is highly concentrated by firm size; export concentration is even higher in terms of foreign ownership, and both concentrations have increased considerably in recent years. Export concentration in other sectors of the Hungarian economy (agriculture, construction industry and services) is generally lower than in industry. Taking firm size and other factors (industry, region, etc.) as given attributes, foreign ownership has a predominant role in export orientation: in comparison to fully Hungarian-owned firms, businesses partially or fully owned by foreigners are more export-oriented. However, the effects of foreign ownership on export orientation over time are highly uncertain.
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