IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gss/journl/v2y2017i1p18-46.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Revisiting the Relationship between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Waqar Qureshi

    (PhD Scholar, Department of Economics, AWKUM, Mardan, Pakistan)

  • Noor Pio Khan

    (Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan)

Abstract

This study aims to examine relationship of military expenditure and economic growth in different phases of military regimes in the context of Pakistan. This study uses two-state Markov switching models with Constant Transition Probability (CTP) and Time Varying Transition Probabilities (TVTP) for the time period: 1973-2014. This investigation analyses two sorts of relations between military expenditures and economic development through fixed transition probability Markov exchanging models. To begin with, there is negative connection between GDP growth and military expenditures during a high variance state (i.e. having low economic growth). Second, there is positive relation between both variables, during low variance state (i.e. having higher economic growth) which is also supported by idea of Keynesian income multiplier. Another, empirical test of time varying transition probability model was used to capture the switch through indicator variable. Results of the study suggest that chances of switching are increased from low to high economic growth. The chances of switching increase from lower to higher economic growth period (or high variance period) if non-military expenditure increases. The study concludes that military expenditure and economic growth are state dependent. If conditions of economy are stable then increase of expenditure results in positive outcomes, otherwise, it affects negatively. Empirical findings suggest that military spending should be planned in accordance to the economic performance of the country.

Suggested Citation

  • Waqar Qureshi & Noor Pio Khan, 2017. "Revisiting the Relationship between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in Pakistan," Global Social Sciences Review, Humanity Only, vol. 2(1), pages 18-46, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:gss:journl:v:2:y:2017:i:1:p:18-46
    DOI: 10.31703/gssr.2017(II-I).02
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://gssrjournal.com/jadmin/Auther/31rvIolA2LALJouq9hkR/ZlOSHeYKdU.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.gssrjournal.com/issue/Revisiting-the-Relationship-between-Military-Expenditure-and-Economic-Growth-in-Pakistan
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Joerding, Wayne, 1986. "Economic growth and defense spending : Granger Causality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-40, April.
    2. Michael D. Stroup & Jac C. Heckelman, 2001. "Size Of The Military Sector And Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis Of Africa And Latin America," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 4, pages 329-360, November.
    3. Nasir M. Khilji & Akhtar Mahmood, 1997. "Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 791-808.
    4. Joshua Aizenman & Reuven Glick, 2006. "Military expenditure, threats, and growth," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 129-155.
    5. Deger, Saadet & Sen, Somnath, 1990. "Military Expenditure: The Political Economy of International Security," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198291411.
    6. F. Menla Ali & O. Dimitraki, 2014. "Military spending and economic growth in China: a regime-switching analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(28), pages 3408-3420, October.
    7. Malcolm Knight & Norman Loayza & Delano Villanueva, 1996. "The Peace Dividend: Military Spending Cuts and Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(1), pages 1-37, March.
    8. Landau, Daniel, 1993. "The economic impact of military expenditures," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1138, The World Bank.
    9. Ourania Dimitraki & Faek Menla Ali, 2015. "The Long-run Causal Relationship Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in China: Revisited," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(3), pages 311-326, June.
    10. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma & Gerhard Reitschuler, 2006. "‘Guns Or Butter?’ Revisited: Robustness And Nonlinearity Issues In The Defense–Growth Nexus," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 53(4), pages 523-541, September.
    11. Morrison, Catherine J & Schwartz, Amy Ellen, 1996. "State Infrastructure and Productive Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1095-1111, December.
    12. Benoit, Emile, 1978. "Growth and Defense in Developing Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 271-280, January.
    13. Barro, Robert J, 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 103-126, October.
    14. Christos Kollias & Nikolaos Mylonidis & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2007. "A Panel Data Analysis Of The Nexus Between Defence Spending And Growth In The European Union: A Reply," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 581-583.
    15. Chung-Nang Lai & Bwo-Nung Huang & Chin-Wei Yang, 2005. "Defense spending and economic growth across the Taiwan straits: a threshold regression model," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 45-57.
    16. Chester, Eric, 1978. "Military Spending and Capitalist Stability," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(3), pages 293-298, September.
    17. Christos Kollias & Nikolaos Mylonidis & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2007. "A Panel Data Analysis Of The Nexus Between Defence Spending And Growth In The European Union," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 75-85.
    18. Levine, Ross & Renelt, David, 1992. "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 942-963, September.
    19. Ram, Rati, 1986. "Government Size and Economic Growth: A New Framework and Some Evidencefrom Cross-Section and Time-Series Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 191-203, March.
    20. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    21. Pavel Yakovlev, 2007. "Arms Trade, Military Spending, And Economic Growth," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 317-338.
    22. Filardo, Andrew J, 1994. "Business-Cycle Phases and Their Transitional Dynamics," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 299-308, July.
    23. Erdal Karagol & Serap Palaz, 2004. "Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 289-298.
    24. Michael Gerace, 2002. "US Military Expenditures and Economic Growth: Some Evidence from Spectral Methods," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 1-11.
    25. Shieh, Jhy-yuan & Lai, Ching-chong & Chang, Wen-ya, 2002. "The impact of military burden on long-run growth and welfare," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 443-454, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Military expenditure; Economic growth; Markov switching models; Keynesian income multiplier.;

    JEL classification:

    • R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General - - - General
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gss:journl:v:2:y:2017:i:1:p:18-46. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (M Imran Khan). General contact details of provider: http://www.humanityonly.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.