IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/defpea/v15y2004i3p289-298.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Erdal Karagol
  • Serap Palaz

Abstract

This paper investigates a series of unit root, cointegration and causality tests to ascertain the direction of causality between the growth of GNP and defence expenditure in Turkey for the years 1955-2000. The main conclusion is that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between GNP and defence expenditures. Furthermore, the short run causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality between variables, from defence expenditure to economic growth. In order to see the effect of a shock, we employed impulse response analyses. The results show that GNP decreased during the period then output finally recovered from the initial shock to defence expenditures.

Suggested Citation

  • Erdal Karagol & Serap Palaz, 2004. "Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 289-298.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:15:y:2004:i:3:p:289-298
    DOI: 10.1080/10242690320001608908
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10242690320001608908
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Paul Dunne & Eftychia Nikolaidou & Dimitrios Vougas, 2001. "Defence spending and economic growth: A causal analysis for Greece and Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 5-26.
    2. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Shahbaz & Reza Sherafatian-Jahromi & Muhammad Nasir Malik & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir & Farooq Ahmed Jam, 2016. "Linkages between defense spending and income inequality in Iran," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 1317-1332, May.
    2. Chien-Chiang Lee & Chun-Ping Chang, 2006. "The Long-Run Relationship Between Defence Expenditures And Gdp In Taiwan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 361-385.
    3. Tsangyao Chang & Chien-Chiang Lee & Hsiao-Ping Chu, 2015. "Revisiting the Defense-Growth nexus in European countries," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(3), pages 341-356, June.
    4. Ucal, Meltem & Karabulut, Gokhan & Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin, 2009. "Military Expenditures and Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Israel," MPRA Paper 48643, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Habibullah, M.S. & Law, Siong-Hook & Dayang-Afizzah, A.M., 2008. "Defense spending and economic growth in Asian economies: A panel error-correction approach," MPRA Paper 12105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
    7. Chien-Chiang Lee & Sheng-Tung Chen, 2007. "Non-Linearity In The Defence Expenditure - Economic Growth Relationship In Taiwan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 537-555.
    8. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Leitão, Nuno Carlos & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2013. "Should Portuguese economy invest in defense spending? A revisit," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 805-815.
    9. J Paul Dunne, Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2005. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in Greece, Portugal and Spain," Frontiers in Finance and Economics, SKEMA Business School, vol. 2(1), pages 1-17, June.
    10. Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 289-301, April.
    11. Mehmet Akif Destek & Ilyas Okumus, 2016. "Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in Brics and Mist Countries: Evidence from Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 14(2), pages 175-186.
    12. Glass, Anthony, 2009. "Government expenditure on public order and safety, economic growth and private investment: Empirical evidence from the United States," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 29-37, March.
    13. Kalyoncu, Huseyin & Yucel, Fatih, 2005. "An analytical approach on defense expenditure and economic growth: the case of Turkey and Greece," MPRA Paper 4262, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2006.
    14. Jeffrey Smith & M. H. Tuttle, 2008. "Does Defense Spending Really Promote Aggregate Output In The United States?," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(6), pages 435-447.
    15. Dimitrios PAPARAS & Christian RICHTER & Alexandros PAPARAS, 2016. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in Greece and the Arms Race between Greece and Turkey," Journal of Economics Library, KSP Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 38-56, March.
    16. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-380 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Fiaz Hussain & Shahzad Hussain & Naila Erum, 2015. "Are Defense Expenditures Pro Poor or Anti Poor in Pakistan? An Empirical Investigation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 875-894.
    18. Oya Erdogdu, 2008. "Political Decisions, Defense And Growth," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 27-35.
    19. Joanne Evans & Eleftherios Goulas & Paul Levine, 2007. "Military Expenditure And Migration In Europe," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 305-316.
    20. Ünal Töngür & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2016. "The impact of military spending and income inequality on economic growth in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 433-452, June.
    21. W. Robert J. Alexander, 2015. "The Keynesian IS-MR Model and Military Spending," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 213-221, April.
    22. Töngür, Ünal & Elveren, Adem, 2013. "The Impact of Military Spending and Income Inequality on Economic Growth in Turkey, 1963-2008," EY International Congress on Economics I (EYC2013), October 24-25, 2013, Ankara, Turkey 251, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association.
    23. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Does Defence Spending Impede Economic Growth? Cointegration And Causality Analysis For Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 105-120, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Defence; Cointegration; Turkey; JEL codes: C22; C32; H56;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • H56 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - National Security and War

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:15:y:2004:i:3:p:289-298. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/GDPE20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.