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Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities


  • Sebastian Wachs

    () (Department of Educational Studies, University of Bremen, Bibliothekstr. 1-3, 28359 Bremen, Germany)

  • Marianne Junger

    () (Industrial Engineering and Business Information Systems, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500-AE Enschede, The Netherland)

  • Ruthaychonee Sittichai

    () (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Muang, Pattani 94000, Thailand)


This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), online grooming victimization, and sexting) and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy) than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6). The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.

Suggested Citation

  • Sebastian Wachs & Marianne Junger & Ruthaychonee Sittichai, 2015. "Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:5:y:2015:i:1:p:109-135:d:46003

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ponzo, Michela, 2013. "Does bullying reduce educational achievement? An evaluation using matching estimators," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1057-1078.
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    More about this item


    traditional bullying; cyberbullying; compulsive Internet use; online grooming; sexting; risky offline activities; life-skills;

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • P - Economic Systems
    • P0 - Economic Systems - - General
    • P1 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies
    • P3 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
    • P4 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics


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