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The Inter-Relation of Corporate Social Responsibility at Employee Level, Servant Leadership, and Innovative Work Behavior in the Time of Crisis from the Healthcare Sector of Pakistan


  • Naveed Ahmad

    (Faculty of Management Studies, University of Central Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan)

  • Miklas Scholz

    (Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Division of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Department of Civil Engineering Science, Kingsway Campus, School of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Aukland Park 2006, Johannesburg PO Box 524, South Africa
    Department of Town Planning, Engineering Networks and Systems, South Ural State University (National Research University), 76, Lenin prospekt, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia)

  • Muhammad Zulqarnain Arshad

    (Department of Management Sciences, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan)

  • Syed Khuram Ali Jafri

    (Department of Management Sciences, Bahria University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan)

  • Raja Irfan Sabir

    (Faculty of Management Studies, University of Central Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan)

  • Waris Ali Khan

    (Faculty of Business, Economics, and Accountancy, Universti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah 88400, Malaysia)

  • Heesup Han

    (College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwanjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea)


Organizational crisis can serve as a base to provide an opportunity to an organization for enhancing individuals, organizations, and communities. The healthcare sector is one of those sectors that remains under continuous pressure to provide high-quality service delivery to the patients. Hence, the requirement of innovation for this sector is huge when compared to other sectors. The majority of the previous studies have investigated the phenomenon of CSR at the employee’s level (CSR-E) to influence employee behavior positively. However, the importance of CSR-E to enhance the innovative capability of the employees at the workplace is not well-explored in extant literature. Moreover, it is not clear from previous studies how the concept of servant leadership can explain the employee’s engagement towards innovative work behavior (EIB). Thus, the current survey aims to test the relationship of CSR-E and EIB in the healthcare sector of Pakistan with the mediating effect of servant leadership. The data of the current study were obtained through a self-administered (paper-pencil) survey and they were analyzed through the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. The empirical results of SEM analysis revealed that CSR-E and EIB are positively related and servant leadership partially mediates this relationship. The findings of the current study will be helpful for policymakers to improve their understanding towards CSR-E to induce EIB in the time of crisis. At the same time, the current study also highlights the importance of servant leadership to the policymakers in encouraging the employees to display their innovative capability at the workplace to serve their organization during the time of crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Naveed Ahmad & Miklas Scholz & Muhammad Zulqarnain Arshad & Syed Khuram Ali Jafri & Raja Irfan Sabir & Waris Ali Khan & Heesup Han, 2021. "The Inter-Relation of Corporate Social Responsibility at Employee Level, Servant Leadership, and Innovative Work Behavior in the Time of Crisis from the Healthcare Sector of Pakistan," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(9), pages 1-16, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:18:y:2021:i:9:p:4608-:d:544070

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    References listed on IDEAS

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