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Tacit Collusion under Fairness and Reciprocity

  • Doruk İriş

    (Sogang University, School of Economics, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Seoul, South Korea)

  • Luís Santos-Pinto

    ()

    (University of Lausanne, Faculty of Business and Economics, Internef, 535 CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland)

This paper departs from the standard profit-maximizing model of firm behavior by assuming that firms are motivated in part by personal animosity–or respect–towards their competitors. A reciprocal firm responds to unkind behavior of rivals with unkind actions (negative reciprocity), while at the same time, it responds to kind behavior of rivals with kind actions (positive reciprocity). We find that collusion is easier to sustain when firms have a concern for reciprocity towards competing firms provided that they consider collusive prices to be kind and punishment prices to be unkind. Thus, reciprocity concerns among firms can have adverse welfare consequences for consumers.

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Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Games.

Volume (Year): 4 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 50-65

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Handle: RePEc:gam:jgames:v:4:y:2013:i:1:p:50-65:d:23527
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  2. Nabil Al-Najjar & Sandeep Baliga & David Besanko, 2008. "Market forces meet behavioral biases: cost misallocation and irrational pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(1), pages 214-237.
  3. Rabin, Matthew, 1997. "Fairness in Repeated Games," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt0nz5b4mb, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
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  11. Santos-Pinto, Luís, 2006. "Reciprocity, inequity-aversion, and oligopolistic competition," MPRA Paper 3143, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Apr 2007.
  12. Malueg, D.A., 1990. "Collusive Behavior And Partial Ownership Of Rivals," Papers 90-9, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
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  16. David Gilo & Yossi Moshe & Yossi Spiegel, 2006. "Partial cross ownership and tacit collusion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(1), pages 81-99, 03.
  17. Abreu, Dilip, 1988. "On the Theory of Infinitely Repeated Games with Discounting," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 383-96, March.
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