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A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011)

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  • Jiansheng Qu

    () (Information Center for Global Change Studies, Lanzhou Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Tek Maraseni

    () (University of Southern Queensland, Institute for Agriculture and the Environment, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350, Australia
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Lina Liu

    () (MOE Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment & Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Zhiqiang Zhang

    () (Information Center for Global Change Studies, Lanzhou Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Talal Yusaf

    () (University of Southern Queensland, Institute for Agriculture and the Environment, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350, Australia
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

Abstract

The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs) patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO 2 and 0.22 tCO 2 , respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO 2 and 0.61 tCO 2 , an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO 2 and 0.16 tCO 2 , respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO 2 and 0.53 tCO 2 , respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO 2 and 0.197 tCO 2 , respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed.

Suggested Citation

  • Jiansheng Qu & Tek Maraseni & Lina Liu & Zhiqiang Zhang & Talal Yusaf, 2015. "A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011)," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-21, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:8:y:2015:i:9:p:10537-10557:d:56185
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Olaniyan, Olanrewaju & Sulaimon, Mubaraq Dele & Ademola, Wasiu, 2018. "Determinants of household direct CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from Nigeria," MPRA Paper 87801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Yang, Jing & Song, Kaihui & Hou, Jian & Zhang, Peidong & Wu, Jinhu, 2017. "Temporal and spacial dynamics of bioenergy-related CO2 emissions and underlying forces analysis in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1323-1330.
    3. repec:eee:renene:v:121:y:2018:i:c:p:700-711 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:4:p:982-:d:138314 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:5:p:1257-:d:146326 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Xingpeng Chen & Guokui Wang & Xiaojia Guo & Jinxiu Fu, 2016. "An Analysis Based on SD Model for Energy-Related CO 2 Mitigation in the Chinese Household Sector," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(12), pages 1-18, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    per capita income; household size; direct emissions; indirect emission; China;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q47 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy Forecasting
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q49 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Other

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