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Determinants of variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries


  • Kerkhof, Annemarie C.
  • Benders, Ren M.J.
  • Moll, Henri C.


Variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries may have important consequences for the equity dimension of climate policies. In this study we aim to identify some determinants of national household CO2 emissions and their distribution across income groups. For that purpose, we quantify the CO2 emissions of households in the Netherlands, UK, Sweden and Norway around the year 2000 by combining a hybrid approach of process analysis and input-output analysis with data on household expenditures. Our results show that average households in the Netherlands and the UK give rise to higher amounts of CO2 emissions than households in Sweden and Norway. Moreover, CO2 emission intensities of household consumption decrease with increasing income in the Netherlands and the UK, whereas they increase in Sweden and Norway. A comparison of the national results at the product level points out that country characteristics, like energy supply, population density and the availability of district heating, influence variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries.

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  • Kerkhof, Annemarie C. & Benders, Ren M.J. & Moll, Henri C., 2009. "Determinants of variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1509-1517, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:4:p:1509-1517

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    1. Duarte, Rosa & Mainar, Alfredo & Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio, 2013. "The role of consumption patterns, demand and technological factors on the recent evolution of CO2 emissions in a group of advanced economies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-13.
    2. Qian Wang & Qiao-Mei Liang & Bing Wang & Fang-Xun Zhong, 2016. "Impact of household expenditures on CO2 emissions in China: Income-determined or lifestyle-driven?," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 84(1), pages 353-379, November.
    3. Schaffrin, André & Reibling, Nadine, 2015. "Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 1-10.
    4. Ala-Mantila, Sanna & Heinonen, Jukka & Junnila, Seppo, 2014. "Relationship between urbanization, direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and expenditures: A multivariate analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 129-139.
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    7. Jiansheng Qu & Tek Maraseni & Lina Liu & Zhiqiang Zhang & Talal Yusaf, 2015. "A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011)," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-21, September.
    8. Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu, 2012. "Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 654-665.
    9. Curtis, John & McCoy, Daire & Aravena Novielli, Claudia, 2017. "Determinants of residential heating system choice: an analysis of Irish households," Papers WP576, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    10. Buchs, Milena & Schnepf, Sylke V., 2013. "UK Households' Carbon Footprint: A Comparison of the Association between Household Characteristics and Emissions from Home Energy, Transport and Other Goods and Services," IZA Discussion Papers 7204, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Xu, Xinkuo & Han, Liyan & Lv, Xiaofeng, 2016. "Household carbon inequality in urban China, its sources and determinants," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 77-86.
    12. Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro & Faria, Weslem Rodrigues & Vale, Vinicius de Almeida, 2015. "The increase in Brazilian household income and its impact on CO2 emissions: Evidence for 2003 and 2009 from input–output tables," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(PA), pages 228-239.
    13. Das, Aparna & Paul, Saikat Kumar, 2014. "CO2 emissions from household consumption in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07: A decomposition analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 90-105.
    14. Age Poom & Rein Ahas, 2016. "How Does the Environmental Load of Household Consumption Depend on Residential Location?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-18, August.
    15. Duarte, Rosa & Mainar, Alfredo & Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio, 2012. "Social groups and CO2 emissions in Spanish households," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 441-450.
    16. Braun, Frauke G., 2010. "Determinants of households' space heating type: A discrete choice analysis for German households," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5493-5503, October.
    17. Saamah Abdallah & Ian Gough & Victoria Johnson & Josh Ryan-Collins & Cindy Smith, 2011. "The distribution of total greenhouse gas emissions by households in the UK, and some implications for social policy," CASE Papers case152, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
    18. Mohamed, Ahmed M.A. & Al-Habaibeh, Amin & Abdo, Hafez & Elabar, Sherifa, 2015. "Towards exporting renewable energy from MENA region to Europe: An investigation into domestic energy use and householders’ energy behaviour in Libya," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 247-262.
    19. Qu, Jiansheng & Zeng, Jingjing & Li, Yan & Wang, Qin & Maraseni, Tek & Zhang, Lihua & Zhang, Zhiqiang & Clarke-Sather, Abigail, 2013. "Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 133-140.
    20. Verhofstadt, E. & Van Ootegem, L. & Defloor, B. & Bleys, B., 2016. "Linking individuals' ecological footprint to their subjective well-being," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 80-89.
    21. Golley, Jane & Meng, Xin, 2012. "Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1864-1872.

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    Hybrid analysis Household consumption CO2 emissions;

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