Determinants of variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries
Variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries may have important consequences for the equity dimension of climate policies. In this study we aim to identify some determinants of national household CO2 emissions and their distribution across income groups. For that purpose, we quantify the CO2 emissions of households in the Netherlands, UK, Sweden and Norway around the year 2000 by combining a hybrid approach of process analysis and input-output analysis with data on household expenditures. Our results show that average households in the Netherlands and the UK give rise to higher amounts of CO2 emissions than households in Sweden and Norway. Moreover, CO2 emission intensities of household consumption decrease with increasing income in the Netherlands and the UK, whereas they increase in Sweden and Norway. A comparison of the national results at the product level points out that country characteristics, like energy supply, population density and the availability of district heating, influence variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries.
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