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Determinants of household direct CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from Nigeria


  • Olaniyan, Olanrewaju
  • Sulaimon, Mubaraq Dele
  • Ademola, Wasiu


The excess concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the earth’s atmosphere has been identified by scientists as the major cause of climate change. If left uncontrolled, this has grave implication for sustainable development. Hence, there is need to formulate and implement informed based climate change mitigation policy. Data on household socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained from the 2015 General Household Survey and household direct CO2 emissions was estimated using the Linear Multiplier Factor Method. An Environmental Kuznets Curve based econometric model was specified and the parameters were estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares technique. At the national level, results revealed that household income, household size, household head gender, literacy ratio and motorisation have significant positive impacts on carbon emissions. However, literacy ratio contradicts a priori expectation. Male population, polygamy and age of household head have insignificant effects. Both age and household income show significant non-linear relationship with household carbon emissions. For urban and rural households, results revealed that household income, household size and household head gender have significant positive effects. Age and motorisation significantly affects urban household carbon emissions. Other factors do not have significant effects on urban household and rural household carbon emissions. The study concludes that household income, household size, motorisation and literacy ratio are the quantitative factors that influence the level of Nigerian household carbon emissions. Based on the research results, the study recommends policies to the government.

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  • Olaniyan, Olanrewaju & Sulaimon, Mubaraq Dele & Ademola, Wasiu, 2018. "Determinants of household direct CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from Nigeria," MPRA Paper 87801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:87801

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Das, Aparna & Paul, Saikat Kumar, 2014. "CO2 emissions from household consumption in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07: A decomposition analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 90-105.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hongwu Zhang & Lequan Zhang & Keying Wang & Xunpeng Shi, 2019. "Unveiling Key Drivers of Indirect Carbon Emissions of Chinese Older Households," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(20), pages 1-17, October.

    More about this item


    Carbon dioxide (CO2); Environmental Kuznets curve; Household; Nigerian; Rural; Urban;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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