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The Impact of Unemployment Rate on the Dimension of Shadow Economy in Spain: A Structural Equation Approach


  • Ion Dobre
  • Adriana AnaMaria Alexandru


The paper uses annual data for the period 1970-2007 in order to estimate the size of Spanish shadow economy. In view to do so, the shadow economy is modelled like a latent variable using the structural equation model(SEM). The model includes tax burden, social benefits, subsidies, government employment, self-employment and unemployment rate as main causes of shadow economy and the results indicates that the size of informal sector oscillates between 22% and 18% of GDP in the last ten years. Investigating the relationship between the shadow economy and unemployment rate a positive relationship is marked out between this two variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Ion Dobre & Adriana AnaMaria Alexandru, 2009. "The Impact of Unemployment Rate on the Dimension of Shadow Economy in Spain: A Structural Equation Approach," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 179-197.
  • Handle: RePEc:ers:journl:v:xii:y:2009:i:4:p:179-197

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Friedrich Schneider & Kausik Chaudhuri & Sumana Chatterjee, 2003. "The Size and Development of the Indian Shadow Economy and a Comparison with other 18 Asian Countries: An Empirical Investigation," Economics working papers 2003-02, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    2. El. Thalassinos & Th. Kiriazidis, 2003. "Degrees Of Integration In International Portfolio Diversification: Effective Systemic Risk," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1-2), pages 119-130, January -.
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    Cited by:

    1. Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva & Carolina Silva Cassorla, 2015. "The shadow economy: a relevant factor for investment decisions in selected European Union countries," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 39(3), pages 305-323.

    More about this item


    Shadow economy; MIMIC mode; unemployment rate;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements


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