The effects of Belgian outward direct investment in European high-wage and low-wage countries on employment in Belgium
Purpose - The paper aims at providing evidence on the impact on employment of outward foreign direct investment, particularly from developed countries into low-wage countries, which is a major concern in many developed countries. Design/methodology/approach - The effects of foreign production undertaken by Belgian foreign-oriented companies on employment in Belgium are investigated by performing econometric tests for complementarity or substitution between home and affiliate employment. The data are from the Amadeus database and consist of a sample of 254 Belgian parent companies with foreign affiliates in low-wage and other high-wage European countries during the 1999-2007 period. Findings - The results show that, given the size of parent production in the home country, Belgian multinational enterprises with foreign affiliates in higher-wage European countries tend to employ more labour at home the more they produce in the host country. This probably reflects the needs of foreign affiliates in higher-wage European countries for management and supervisory services from parent companies. Another explanation might be that Belgian outward FDI is largely vertical. In contrast, no evidence is found about employment reallocation between parents and affiliates operating in lower-wage European countries. Originality/value - The paper provides evidence on overall effects on employment in Belgium of its outward foreign direct investment for the period 1999-2007, i.e. using the most recent data available. In contrast to many other studies, statistical diagnostic tests were carried out to choose the appropriate model to best fit the data.
Volume (Year): 32 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com|
|Order Information:|| Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK|
Web: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ijm.htm Email:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Blomstrom, Magnus & Fors, Gunnar & Lipsey, Robert E, 1997.
"Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(445), pages 1787-1797, November.
- Magnus Blomstrom & Gunnar Fors & Robert E. Lipsey, 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden," NBER Working Papers 6205, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blomström, Magnus & Fors, Gunnar & Lipsey, Robert E., 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden," Working Paper Series 490, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Blomström, Magnus & Fors, Gunnar & Lipsey, Robert E., 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment: Home Country Experience in the United States and Sweden," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 200, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Ludo Cuyvers & Michel Dumont & Glenn Rayp & Katrien Stevens, 2005. "Home Employment Effects of EU Firms’ Activities in Central and Eastern European Countries," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 153-174, April.
- L. Cuyvers & M. Dumont & G. Rayp & K. Stevens, 2002. "Home Employment Effects of EU Firms' Activities in Central and Eastern European Countries," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 02/158, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Herzer, Dierk, 2008. "The long-run relationship between outward FDI and domestic output: Evidence from panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 146-149, July.
- Georges Siotis, 1999. "Foreign Direct Investment Strategies and Firms' Capabilities," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 251-270, 06.
- Georges SIOTIS, 1996. "Foreign Direct Investment Strategies and Firms' Capabilities," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9626, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Tain-Jy Chen & Ying-Hua Ku, 2003. "The Effects of Overseas Investment on Domestic Employment," NBER Working Papers 10156, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
- Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-1271, November.
- J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Jaan Masso & Urmas Varblane & Priit Vahter, 2008. "The Effect of Outward Foreign Direct Investment on Home-Country Employment in a Low-Cost Transition Economy," Eastern European Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(6), pages 25-59, November.
- Jaan Masso & Urmas Varblane & Priit Vahter, 2008. "The Effect of Outward Foreign Direct Investment on Home-Country Employment in a Low-Cost Transition Economy," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(6), pages 25-59, November.
- Fosfuri, Andrea & Motta, Massimo, 1999. " Multinationals without Advantages," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 101(4), pages 617-630, December.
- Motta, Massimo, 1996. "Multinationals without Advantages," Working Paper Series 464, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Christopher F Baum, 2006. "An Introduction to Modern Econometrics using Stata," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, number imeus, January.
- repec:hhs:iuiwop:490 is not listed on IDEAS
- Robert E. Lipsey & James R. Hines Jr. & R. Glenn Hubbard, 1995. "Home-Country Effects of Outward Direct Investment," NBER Chapters,in: Taxing Multinational Corporations, pages 7-12 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity, exporting and foreign direct investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages 134-161, 02.
- M. Ruth & K. Donaghy & P. Kirshen, 2006. "Introduction," Chapters,in: Regional Climate Change and Variability, chapter 1 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- repec:ilo:ilowps:185164 is not listed on IDEAS
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Domestic Capital Stock," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 33-38, May.
- Mihir C. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Domestic Capital Stock," NBER Working Papers 11075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- ., 2004. "W," Chapters,in: An Eponymous Dictionary of Economics, chapter 21 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Bulcke, D. van den. & Halsberghe, E., 1979. "Employment effects of multinational enterprises: a Belgian case study," ILO Working Papers 991851643402676, International Labour Organization.
- Keith Head & John Ries, 2004. "Exporting and FDI as Alternative Strategies," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 409-423, Autumn. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:ijmpps:v:32:y:2011:i:3:p:300-312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.