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Accelerating international expansion through global alliances: a typology of cooperative strategies

  • García-Canal, Esteban
  • Duarte, Cristina López
  • Criado, Josep Rialp
  • Llaneza, Ana Valdés
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    Firms with low levels of internationalization may feel the need to speed up their international development in order to be able to compete with multinational enterprises (MNEs) of bigger size and wider scope. Global alliances are a means to achieve such an accelerated process, not only because they allow firms to gain access to several markets at the same time, but also because they make it possible to enhance their own international competitiveness through the use of their partners' resources. This paper provides a detailed illustration of the competitive uses of global alliances as a means to accelerate the international expansion of the firm. Using evidence from 11 case studies on Spanish firms, we build a typology of four cooperative strategies. One of these strategies is based on local alliances, whereas the remaining three are based on global alliances. The paper presents a detailed case study of the firm which best fits each strategy found in global alliances. The implications of each strategy for alliance management, together with the possible evolution of each of them, are also discussed.

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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of World Business.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 2 (July)
    Pages: 91-107

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:worbus:v:37:y:2002:i:2:p:91-107
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    1. Peter J Buckley & Mark C Casson, 1998. "Analyzing Foreign Market Entry Strategies: Extending the Internalization Approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(3), pages 539-561, September.
    2. Erin Anderson & Hubert Gatignon, 1986. "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(3), pages 1-26, September.
    3. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1995. "Knowledge, Market Failure and the Multinational Enterprise: A Reply," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(2), pages 417-426, June.
    4. Smith Ring, Peter, 2000. "The three T's of alliance creation: task, team and time," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 152-163, April.
    5. John H Dunning, 1995. "Reappraising the Eclectic Paradigm in an Age of Alliance Capitalism," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(3), pages 461-491, September.
    6. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    7. Kotabe, Masaaki & Teegen, Hildy & Aulakh, Preet S. & Coutinho de Arruda, Maria Cecilia & Santillán-Salgado, Roberto J. & Greene, Walter, 2000. "Strategic alliances in emerging Latin America: a view from Brazilian, Chilean, and Mexican companies," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 114-132, July.
    8. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
    9. Lei, David & Slocum, John W. & Pitts, Robert A., 1997. "Building cooperative advantage: Managing strategic alliances to promote organizational learning," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 203-223, October.
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