IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v155y2022ics0305750x22000870.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Sex-disaggregated agricultural extension and weather variability in Africa south of the Sahara

Author

Listed:
  • Azzarri, Carlo
  • Nico, Gianluigi

Abstract

Climate change and extreme weather shocks pose serious threats to a number of agricultural outcomes, including agricultural production, productivity, and income, especially when households depend heavily on this activity. Agricultural extension and rural advisory services are key instruments in promoting technical change, advancing agricultural productivity growth and, ultimately, improving farm livelihoods, and are expected to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and extreme weather shocks. Their mitigation effects, however, may vary depending on the sex of the recipient. This paper investigates the role of sex-disaggregated agricultural extension recipients in contexts where agricultural performance of farm households is affected by weather variability. To this aim, we match multiple rounds of panel microdata from the nationally representative, consumption-based Living Standards Measurement Study -Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA), collected in four sub-Saharan African countries, with remote sensing data on biophysical dimensions over a long-term horizon as well as year-specific weather shocks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a micro-level dataset with individual-level information on agricultural extension services’ recipients has been assembled and examined to investigate the effects of extreme weather shocks and climate change. Applying panel data econometric estimators, the study finds that agricultural extension and advisory services translate into higher agricultural performance of farm households where women are also among the beneficiaries, as compared to non-beneficiaries and households where beneficiaries are men only. Moreover, these services can mitigate the negative effects of weather variability and climate change, controlling for country and time fixed effects as well as holding all other variables constant. These results call for national and international policies and interventions strengthening rural advisory services, especially targeted to women in settings where household livelihoods are predominantly agriculture-based and weather variability and shocks are expected to negatively affect farming activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Azzarri, Carlo & Nico, Gianluigi, 2022. "Sex-disaggregated agricultural extension and weather variability in Africa south of the Sahara," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 155(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:155:y:2022:i:c:s0305750x22000870
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2022.105897
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X22000870
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.worlddev.2022.105897?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Kumar, Neha, 2014. "Land rights knowledge and conservation in rural Ethiopia: Mind the gender gap:," IFPRI discussion papers 1386, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Kilic, Talip & Palacios-López, Amparo & Goldstein, Markus, 2015. "Caught in a Productivity Trap: A Distributional Perspective on Gender Differences in Malawian Agriculture," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 416-463.
    3. Cheryl R. Doss & Michael L. Morris, 2000. "How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations?," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(1), pages 27-39, June.
    4. Azzarri, Carlo & Signorelli, Sara, 2020. "Climate and poverty in Africa South of the Sahara," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    5. Joseph Mawejje, 2016. "Food prices, energy and climate shocks in Uganda," Agricultural and Food Economics, Springer;Italian Society of Agricultural Economics (SIDEA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-18, December.
    6. Arturo Aguilar & Eliana Carranza & Markus Goldstein & Talip Kilic & Gbemisola Oseni, 2015. "Decomposition of gender differentials in agricultural productivity in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(3), pages 311-334, May.
    7. Doss, Cheryl R., 2001. "Designing Agricultural Technology for African Women Farmers: Lessons from 25 Years of Experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 2075-2092, December.
    8. Julian M. Alston & Philip G. Pardey, 2014. "Agriculture in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(1), pages 121-146, Winter.
    9. David Hulme, 1989. "Review article: Improving the performance of agricultural extension services in developing countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 387-396, July.
    10. Jonathan Kydd & Andrew Dorward & Jamie Morrison & Georg Cadisch, 2004. "Agricultural development and pro-poor economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: potential and policy," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(1), pages 37-57.
    11. Peterman, Amber & Behrman, Julia & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2010. "A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries," IFPRI discussion papers 975, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Gbemisola Oseni & Paul Corral & Markus Goldstein & Paul Winters, 2015. "Explaining gender differentials in agricultural production in Nigeria," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(3), pages 285-310, May.
    13. Simeon Ehui & John Pender, 2005. "Resource degradation, low agricultural productivity, and poverty in sub‐Saharan Africa: pathways out of the spiral," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 32(s1), pages 225-242, January.
    14. Julius Kotir, 2011. "Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 587-605, June.
    15. Samuel Benin & Ephraim Nkonya & Geresom Okecho & Joseé Randriamamonjy & Edward Kato & Geofrey Lubade & Miriam Kyotalimye, 2011. "Returns to spending on agricultural extension: the case of the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program of Uganda," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 42(2), pages 249-267, March.
    16. Joseph Mawejje, 2016. "Food prices, energy and climate shocks in Uganda," Agricultural and Food Economics, Springer;Italian Society of Agricultural Economics (SIDEA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-18, December.
    17. Ragasa, Catherine, 2012. "Gender and Institutional Dimensions of Agricultural Technology Adoption: A Review of Literature and Synthesis of 35 Case Studies," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126747, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    18. Backiny-Yetna,Prospere R. & Mcgee,Kevin Robert & Backiny-Yetna,Prospere R. & Mcgee,Kevin Robert, 2015. "Gender differentials and agricultural productivity in Niger," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7199, The World Bank.
    19. Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep & Mendelsohn, Robert, 2008. "How will climate change shift agro-ecological zones and impact African agriculture ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4717, The World Bank.
    20. Peterman, A., 2010. "A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries," IWMI Working Papers H043605, International Water Management Institute.
    21. Alessandro Maffioli & Diego Ubfal & Gonzalo Vázquez Baré & Pedro Cerdán‐Infantes, 2011. "Extension services, product quality and yields: the case of grapes in Argentina," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 42(6), pages 727-734, November.
    22. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh & Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo, 2010. "Review of agricultural extension in India: Are farmers' information needs being met?," IFPRI discussion papers 1048, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    23. Cheryl R. Doss, 2018. "Women and agricultural productivity: Reframing the Issues," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 36(1), pages 35-50, January.
    24. World Bank, 2012. "World Development Report 2012 [Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2012]," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 4391, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ali, Daniel & Bowen, Derick & Deininger, Klaus & Duponchel, Marguerite, 2016. "Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 152-170.
    2. Fisher, Monica & Kandiwa, Vongai, 2014. "Can agricultural input subsidies reduce the gender gap in modern maize adoption? Evidence from Malawi," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 101-111.
    3. Pierotti, Rachael S. & Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia & Olayiwola, Olubukola, 2022. "Women farm what they can manage: How time constraints affect the quantity and quality of labor for married women’s agricultural production in southwestern Nigeria," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 152(C).
    4. Kwabena Nyarko Addai & Wencong Lu & Omphile Temoso, 2021. "Are Female Rice Farmers Less Productive than Male Farmers? Micro-evidence from Ghana," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 33(6), pages 1997-2039, December.
    5. Mukasa Adamon N. & Adeleke Oluwole Salami, 2016. "Working Paper 231 - Gender productivity differentials among smallholder farmers in Africa: A cross-country comparison," Working Paper Series 2324, African Development Bank.
    6. Makate, Clifton & Mutenje, Munyaradzi, 2021. "Discriminatory effects of gender disparities in improved seed and fertilizer use at the plot-level in Malawi and Tanzania," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 23(C).
    7. Namonje-Kapembwa, Thelma & Thelma, Antony, 2016. "Improved Agricultural Technology Adoption in Zambia: Are Women Farmers Being Left Behind?," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 245916, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    8. Girma Gezimu Gebre & Hiroshi Isoda & Yuichiro Amekawa & Dil Bahadur Rahut & Hisako Nomura & Takaaki Watanabe, 2021. "What Explains Gender Gaps in Household Food Security? Evidence from Maize Farm Households in Southern Ethiopia," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 155(1), pages 281-314, May.
    9. OBISESAN, Adekemi & AWOLALA, David, 2021. "Crop Diversification, Productivity And Dietary Diversity: A Gender Perspective," Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics (RAAE), Faculty of Economics and Management, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, vol. 24(1), March.
    10. Hirpa Tufa, Adane & Alene, Arega D. & Cole, Steven M. & Manda, Julius & Feleke, Shiferaw & Abdoulaye, Tahirou & Chikoye, David & Manyong, Victor, 2022. "Gender differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 159(C).
    11. Vasilaky, Kathryn N. & Islam, Asif M., 2018. "Competition or cooperation? Using team and tournament incentives for learning among female farmers in rural Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 216-225.
    12. Araar, Abdelkrim, 2021. "The Gender Gap in Smallholder Agricultural Productivity: The Case of Cameroon," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315902, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    13. Olumeh, Dennis Etemesi & Mithöfer, Dagmar, 2023. "Gender gaps in the collection and marketing of an underutilized plant species – Baobab in Malawi," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 152(C).
    14. Mahajan, Kanika, 2019. "Back to the plough: Women managers and farm productivity in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.
    15. Palacios-López, Amparo & López, Ramon E., 2014. "Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity: The Role of Market Imperfections," Working Papers 164061, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    16. Palacios-Lopez, Amparo & Christiaensen, Luc & Kilic, Talip, 2017. "How much of the labor in African agriculture is provided by women?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 52-63.
    17. Girma Gezimu Gebre & Hiroshi Isoda & Dil Bahadur Rahut & Yuichiro Amekawa & Hisako Nomura, 0. "Gender Gaps in Market Participation Among Individual and Joint Decision-Making Farm Households: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 0, pages 1-35.
    18. Meinzen-Dick, Ruth & Quisumbing, Agnes & Doss, Cheryl & Theis, Sophie, 2019. "Women's land rights as a pathway to poverty reduction: Framework and review of available evidence," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 72-82.
    19. Uzoamaka Joe-Nkamuke & Kehinde Oluseyi Olagunju & Esther Njuguna-Mungai & Kai Mausch, 2019. "Is there any gender gap in the production of legumes in Malawi? Evidence from the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition model," Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies, Springer, vol. 100(1), pages 69-92, December.
    20. de la O Campos, Ana Paula & Covarrubias, Katia Alejandra & Prieto Patron, Alberto, 2016. "How Does the Choice of the Gender Indicator Affect the Analysis of Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity? Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 17-33.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:155:y:2022:i:c:s0305750x22000870. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.