IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/trapol/v93y2020icp36-45.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Entry pattern of low-cost carriers in New Zealand - The impact of domestic and trans-Tasman market factors

Author

Listed:
  • Wang, Kun
  • Tsui, Wai Hong Kan
  • Li, Lan-Bing
  • Lei, Zheng
  • Fu, Xiaowen

Abstract

This study empirically examines the route entry decision of Jetstar NZ, a low-cost carrier (LCC), in New Zealand's duopolistic domestic aviation market between 2010 and 2016. The estimation controls for route characteristics, airline spatial network, and airline competition variables in both New Zealand's domestic market and the adjacent trans-Tasman markets linking Australia and New Zealand. The empirical results suggest that the favorable regional socioeconomic and tourism factors helped Jetstar NZ launch its service into a route. The LCC's entry decisions on domestic routes are not sensitive to airline competition within the same market but are influenced by the carrier's own operation and airline competition in the international Tasman market. Our study suggests that there are different sources of network effects for LCCs operating point-to-point travel demands. The "airline-in-airline" (AinA) strategy allows airlines (Jetstar and Qantas) within the same group to achieve certain synergy and competition benefits, but certain network effects can only be obtained between the same types of carriers. We also find preliminary evidence of spill-over effects, through which international liberalization influences competition in the domestic market.

Suggested Citation

  • Wang, Kun & Tsui, Wai Hong Kan & Li, Lan-Bing & Lei, Zheng & Fu, Xiaowen, 2020. "Entry pattern of low-cost carriers in New Zealand - The impact of domestic and trans-Tasman market factors," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 36-45.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:93:y:2020:i:c:p:36-45
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.04.020
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X20301517
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lawton, Thomas C. & Solomko, Stanislav, 2005. "When being the lowest cost is not enough: Building a successful low-fare airline business model in Asia," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 355-362.
    2. David Haugh & Tim Hazledine, 1999. "Oligopoly behaviour in the Trans-Tasman air travel market: The case of kiwi international," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 1-25.
    3. Moshe Givoni & Frédéric Dobruszkes, 2013. "A Review of Ex-Post Evidence for Mode Substitution and Induced Demand Following the Introduction of High-Speed Rail," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/152140, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Xiaowen Fu & Tae H. Oum & Jia Yan, 2014. "An Analysis of Travel Demand in Japan's Intercity Market Empirical Estimation and Policy Simulation," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 48(1), pages 97-113, January.
    5. Tsui, Wai Hong Kan & Gilbey, Andrew & Balli, Hatice Ozer, 2014. "Estimating airport efficiency of New Zealand airports," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 78-86.
    6. Wang, Kun & Xia, Wenyi & Zhang, Anming, 2017. "Should China further expand its high-speed rail network? Consider the low-cost carrier factor," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 105-120.
    7. Douglas, Ian & Tan, David, 2017. "Global airline alliances and profitability: A difference-in-difference analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 432-443.
    8. Kathrin Müller & Kai Hüschelrath & Volodymyr Bilotkach, 2012. "The Construction of a Low‐Cost Airline Network – Facing Competition and Exploring New Markets," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(7-8), pages 485-499, October.
    9. Wang, Kun & Tsui, Kan Wai Hong & Liang, Liping & Fu, Xiaowen, 2017. "Entry patterns of low-cost carriers in Hong Kong and implications to the regional market," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(PB), pages 101-112.
    10. Henderson, Isaac Levi & Tsui, Kan Wai Hong & Ngo, Thanh & Gilbey, Andrew & Avis, Mark, 2019. "Airline brand choice in a duopolistic market: The case of New Zealand," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 147-163.
    11. Whyte, Randall & Lohmann, Gui, 2015. "The carrier-within-a-carrier strategy: An analysis of Jetstar," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 141-148.
    12. Fageda, Xavier & Jiménez, Juan Luis & Perdiguero, Jordi, 2011. "Price rivalry in airline markets: a study of a successful strategy of a network carrier against a low-cost carrier," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 658-669.
    13. Balli, Faruk & Balli, Hatice O. & Jean Louis, Rosmy, 2016. "The impacts of immigrants and institutions on bilateral tourism flows," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 221-229.
    14. Charles Boguslaski & Harumi Ito & Darin Lee, 2004. "Entry Patterns in the Southwest Airlines Route System," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 25(3), pages 317-350, August.
    15. Gong, Qiang & Wang, Kun & Fan, Xingli & Fu, Xiaowen & Xiao, Yi-bin, 2018. "International trade drivers and freight network analysis - The case of the Chinese air cargo sector," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 253-262.
    16. Berry, Steven T, 1992. "Estimation of a Model of Entry in the Airline Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 889-917, July.
    17. Akio Kawasaki & Ming Hsin Lin, 2013. "Airline Schedule Competition and the Entry Route Choices of Low-Cost Carriers," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 97-114, June.
    18. Amy Wood & Ilan Noy & Miles Parker, 2016. "The Canterbury rebuild five years on from the Christchurch earthquake," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 79, pages 1-16, February.
    19. Hakim, Md Mahbubul & Merkert, Rico, 2016. "The causal relationship between air transport and economic growth: Empirical evidence from South Asia," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 120-127.
    20. Alderighi, Marco & Cento, Alessandro & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 2012. "Competition in the European aviation market: the entry of low-cost airlines," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 223-233.
    21. Wang, Kun & Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yahua, 2018. "Key determinants of airline pricing and air travel demand in China and India: Policy, ownership, and LCC competition," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 80-89.
    22. Moshe Givoni & Frédéric Dobruszkes, 2013. "A Review of Ex-Post Evidence for Mode Substitution and Induced Demand Following the Introduction of High-Speed Rail," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(6), pages 720-742, November.
    23. Tim Hazledine, 2010. "Pricing, Competition and Policy in Australasian Air Travel Markets," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 44(1), pages 37-58, January.
    24. Oliveira, Alessandro V.M. & Huse, Cristian, 2009. "Localized competitive advantage and price reactions to entry: Full-service vs. low-cost airlines in recently liberalized emerging markets," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 307-320, March.
    25. Lin, Ming Hsin, 2012. "Airlines-within-airlines strategies and existence of low-cost carriers," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 637-651.
    26. Gillen, David & Gados, Alicja, 2008. "Airlines within airlines: Assessing the vulnerabilities of mixing business models," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 25-35.
    27. Kissling, Chris, 1998. "Liberal aviation agreements – New Zealand," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 177-180.
    28. Wang, Kun & Xia, Wenyi & Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Qiong, 2018. "Effects of train speed on airline demand and price: Theory and empirical evidence from a natural experiment," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 99-130.
    29. Homsombat, Winai & Lei, Zheng & Fu, Xiaowen, 2014. "Competitive effects of the airlines-within-airlines strategy – Pricing and route entry patterns," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-16.
    30. Ito, Harumi & Lee, Darin, 2005. "Assessing the impact of the September 11 terrorist attacks on U.S. airline demand," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 75-95.
    31. Morley, Clive & Rosselló, Jaume & Santana-Gallego, Maria, 2014. "Gravity models for tourism demand: theory and use," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 1-10.
    32. Chung, Jin Young & Whang, Taehee, 2011. "The impact of low cost carriers on Korean Island tourism," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 1335-1340.
    33. Harumi Ito & Darin Lee, 2003. "Incumbent Responses to Lower Cost Entry: Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry," Working Papers 2003-22, Brown University, Department of Economics.
    34. Zhang, Shengrun & Derudder, Ben & Fuellhart, Kurt & Witlox, Frank, 2018. "Carriers’ entry patterns under EU-US open skies agreement," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 101-112.
    35. Baker, Douglas & Merkert, Rico & Kamruzzaman, Md., 2015. "Regional aviation and economic growth: cointegration and causality analysis in Australia," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 140-150.
    36. Mason, Keith J. & Alamdari, F., 2007. "EU network carriers, low cost carriers and consumer behaviour: A Delphi study of future trends," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 299-310.
    37. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991. "Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
    38. Graham, Anne & Dennis, Nigel, 2010. "The impact of low cost airline operations to Malta," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 127-136.
    39. Fu, Xiaowen & Zhang, Anming & Lei, Zheng, 2012. "Will China’s airline industry survive the entry of high-speed rail?," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 13-25.
    40. Windle, Robert & Dresner, Martin, 1999. "Competitive responses to low cost carrier entry," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 59-75, March.
    41. Zhang, Yahua & Wang, Kun & Fu, Xiaowen, 2017. "Air transport services in regional Australia: Demand pattern, frequency choice and airport entry," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 472-489.
    42. Tim Hazledine, 2008. "Competition and Competition Policy in the Trans-Tasman Air Travel Market," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 41(4), pages 337-348, December.
    43. Fu, Xiaowen & Jin, Huan & Liu, Shaoxuan & Oum, Tae H. & Yan, Jia, 2019. "Exploring network effects of point-to-point networks: An investigation of the spatial patterns of Southwest Airlines’ network," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 36-45.
    44. Balli, Hatice Ozer & Tsui, Wai Hong Kan & Balli, Faruk, 2019. "Modelling the volatility of international visitor arrivals to New Zealand," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 204-214.
    45. Fu, Xiaowen & Lei, Zheng & Wang, Kun & Yan, Jia, 2015. "Low cost carrier competition and route entry in an emerging but regulated aviation market – The case of China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 3-16.
    46. Maria José Gil-Moltó & Claudio A. Piga, 2008. "Entry and Exit by European Low-Cost and Traditional Carriers," Tourism Economics, , vol. 14(3), pages 577-598, September.
    47. Daraban, Bogdan & Fournier, Gary M., 2008. "Incumbent responses to low-cost airline entry and exit: A spatial autoregressive panel data analysis," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 15-24.
    48. Graf, Luca, 2005. "Incompatibilities of the low-cost and network carrier business models within the same airline grouping," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 313-327.
    49. Wang, Kun & Fu, Xiaowen & Czerny, Achim I. & Hua, Guowei & Lei, Zheng, 2020. "Modeling the potential for aviation liberalization in Central Asia – Market analysis and implications for the Belt and Road Initiative," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 184-210.
    50. Fu, Xiaowen & Dresner, Martin & Oum, Tae H., 2011. "Effects of transport service differentiation in the US domestic airline market," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 297-305, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zhang, Yahua & Sampaio, Breno & Fu, Xiaowen & Huang, Zhibin, 2018. "Pricing dynamics between airline groups with dual-brand services," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 46-59.
    2. Su, Min & Luan, Weixin & Fu, Xiaowen & Yang, Zaili & Zhang, Rui, 2020. "The competition effects of low-cost carriers and high-speed rail on the Chinese aviation market," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 37-46.
    3. Fu, Xiaowen & Jin, Huan & Liu, Shaoxuan & Oum, Tae H. & Yan, Jia, 2019. "Exploring network effects of point-to-point networks: An investigation of the spatial patterns of Southwest Airlines’ network," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 36-45.
    4. Ko, Young Dae, 2019. "The airfare pricing and seat allocation problem in full-service carriers and subsidiary low-cost carriers," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 92-102.
    5. Wang, Kun & Tsui, Kan Wai Hong & Liang, Liping & Fu, Xiaowen, 2017. "Entry patterns of low-cost carriers in Hong Kong and implications to the regional market," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(PB), pages 101-112.
    6. Wang, Yixiao & Sun, Luoyi & Teunter, Ruud H. & Wu, Jianhong & Hua, Guowei, 2020. "Effects of introducing low-cost high-speed rail on air-rail competition: Modelling and numerical analysis for Paris-Marseille," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 145-162.
    7. Homsombat, Winai & Lei, Zheng & Fu, Xiaowen, 2014. "Competitive effects of the airlines-within-airlines strategy – Pricing and route entry patterns," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-16.
    8. Hong Tsui, Kan Wai, 2017. "Does a low-cost carrier lead the domestic tourism demand and growth of New Zealand?," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 390-403.
    9. Liu, Shuli & Wan, Yulai & Ha, Hun-Koo & Yoshida, Yuichiro & Zhang, Anming, 2019. "Impact of high-speed rail network development on airport traffic and traffic distribution: Evidence from China and Japan," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 115-135.
    10. Zhang, Shengrun & Fuellhart, Kurt & Yang, Wendong & Tang, Xiaowei & Witlox, Frank, 2019. "Factors shaping non-stop airline services in the transatlantic air transport market: 2015–2017," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    11. Wang, Kun & Xia, Wenyi & Zhang, Anming, 2017. "Should China further expand its high-speed rail network? Consider the low-cost carrier factor," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 105-120.
    12. Li, Hongchang & Wang, Kun & Yu, Kemei & Zhang, Anming, 2020. "Are conventional train passengers underserved after entry of high-speed rail?-Evidence from Chinese intercity markets," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 1-9.
    13. Zhang, Anming & Wan, Yulai & Yang, Hangjun, 2019. "Impacts of high-speed rail on airlines, airports and regional economies: A survey of recent research," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 1-19.
    14. Zhang, Yahua & Wang, Kun & Fu, Xiaowen, 2017. "Air transport services in regional Australia: Demand pattern, frequency choice and airport entry," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 472-489.
    15. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Kawata, Keisuke & Kim, Tae Seung & Park, Jaehong & Purwandono, Putut & Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2019. "Quantifying the impact of low-cost carriers on international air passenger movements to and from major airports in Asia," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 28-57.
    16. Zou, Li & Yu, Chunyan, 2020. "The evolving market entry strategy: A comparative study of Southwest and JetBlue," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 682-695.
    17. Fu, Xiaowen & Lei, Zheng & Wang, Kun & Yan, Jia, 2015. "Low cost carrier competition and route entry in an emerging but regulated aviation market – The case of China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 3-16.
    18. Dziedzic, Marcin & Njoya, Eric T. & Warnock-Smith, David & Hubbard, Nick, 2020. "Determinants of air traffic volumes and structure at small European airports," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    19. Czerny, Achim I. & Fu, Xiaowen & Lei, Zheng & Oum, Tae H., 2021. "Post pandemic aviation market recovery: Experience and lessons from China," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    20. Wang, Jiaoe & Huang, Jie & Jing, Yue, 2020. "Competition between high-speed trains and air travel in China: From a spatial to spatiotemporal perspective," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 62-78.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:93:y:2020:i:c:p:36-45. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.