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Valuation of strategic options in public–private partnerships

Listed author(s):
  • Power, Gabriel J.
  • Burris, Mark
  • Vadali, Sharada
  • Vedenov, Dmitry

This paper investigates the feasibility of and develops an economic valuation model for strategic options in Comprehensive Development Agreements (CDAs). A CDA is a form of public–private partnership whereby the right to price and collect revenues from toll roads is leased to a private entity for a long but finite period of time. In exchange, this provides local and state governments with a quick influx of cash and/or additional infrastructure. Uncertainty associated with such long-term leases is of substantial public concern. This paper examines five different strategic options, namely a buyout option, a conditional buyout option, a revenue-sharing option, and two types of minimum revenue guarantee options. The buyout option in particular could give the public sector additional control over the future use of leased facilities and address potential concerns regarding long-run uncertainty and possible unforeseen windfalls for the private sector. The paper’s contributions include the analysis, feasibility assessment and valuation of several strategic options, sensitivity analysis of the solutions, an economic consumer demand-based revenue model for purposes of cash flow simulation, and analysis of option price sensitivity to “moneyness”. The main conclusion is that strategic options can provide useful risk reduction, but generally have significant value relative to the lease itself. By scaling down payoffs, options could be realistically included in CDAs and other PPPs. For some parameter values, option values to the developer and public authority are offsetting, allowing for costless risk reduction.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

Volume (Year): 90 (2016)
Issue (Month): C ()
Pages: 50-68

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Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:90:y:2016:i:c:p:50-68
DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2016.05.015
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  1. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 113-147.
  2. Boyle, Phelim & Broadie, Mark & Glasserman, Paul, 1997. "Monte Carlo methods for security pricing," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 21(8-9), pages 1267-1321, June.
  3. Chan, K C, et al, 1992. " An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Models of the Short-Term Interest Rate," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1209-1227, July.
  4. Germà Bel & John Foote, 2007. "Comparison of Recent Toll Road Concession Transactions in the United States and France," Working Papers XREAP2007-11, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Nov 2007.
  5. Takashima, Ryuta & Yagi, Kyoko & Takamori, Hiroshi, 2010. "Government guarantees and risk sharing in public-private partnerships," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 78-83, April.
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  7. Rose, Simon, 1998. "Valuation of Interacting Real Options in a Tollroad Infrastructure Project," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 2), pages 711-723.
  8. Trigeorgis, Lenos, 1993. "The Nature of Option Interactions and the Valuation of Investments with Multiple Real Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(01), pages 1-20, March.
  9. Luiz Eduardo Brandao & Eduardo Saraiva, 2008. "The option value of government guarantees in infrastructure projects," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(11), pages 1171-1180.
  10. Alonso-Conde, Ana Belen & Brown, Christine & Rojo-Suarez, Javier, 2007. "Public private partnerships: Incentives, risk transfer and real options," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 335-349.
  11. Gatti, Stefano, 2012. "Project Finance in Theory and Practice," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 2, number 9780123919465.
  12. Luiz Brandão & James Dyer, 2005. "Decision Analysis and Real Options: A Discrete Time Approach to Real Option Valuation," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 135(1), pages 21-39, March.
  13. David Ford & Diane Lander & John Voyer, 2002. "A real options approach to valuing strategic flexibility in uncertain construction projects," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 343-351.
  14. Stephan Danninger, 2005. "Revenue Forecasts as Performance Targets," IMF Working Papers 05/14, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Charles Cheah & Jicai Liu, 2006. "Valuing governmental support in infrastructure projects as real options using Monte Carlo simulation," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 545-554.
  16. Nicola Chiara & Michael Garvin, 2008. "Variance models for project financial risk analysis with applications to greenfield BOT highway projects," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(9), pages 925-939.
  17. Boyle, Phelim P., 1977. "Options: A Monte Carlo approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 323-338, May.
  18. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt43n1k4jb, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
  19. Trigeorgis, Lenos, 1991. "A Log-Transformed Binomial Numerical Analysis Method for Valuing Complex Multi-Option Investments," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(03), pages 309-326, September.
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