International private and public reinforcing dependencies for the innovation of automotive emission control systems in Japan and USA
In the beginning of the 1970s, the economies of USA and Japan were growing fast and environmental pollution was increasing to alarming levels. As passenger car emissions were found to be significant and rapidly increasing, their reduction was specially targeted. Following a bill passed by US Congress in 1968, requirements were set in 1970 for the vehicle manufacturers to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) with 90% by 1975, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 90% by 1976. These requirements were soon adapted to the Japanese regulatory framework, and were known in both countries as the “Muskie Act” or “Muskie Law” after the senator who developed the original bill.
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Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
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- David Bauner, 2007. "Global innovation vs. local regulation: introduction of automotive emission control in Sweden and Europe," International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 7(1/2), pages 244-272.
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- Popp, David, 2006. "International innovation and diffusion of air pollution control technologies: the effects of NOX and SO2 regulation in the US, Japan, and Germany," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 46-71, January.
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