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The Sport Spectator Satisfaction Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Satisfaction of Spectators


  • Van Leeuwen, Linda
  • Quick, Shayne
  • Daniel, Kerry


Customer satisfaction is associated with numerous positive business outcomes and is recognised as an important field of study. However, only limited research has addressed the satisfaction of sport spectators, with even fewer studies examining the determinants of this satisfaction. Yet an understanding of how spectators arrive at evaluations of satisfaction or dissatisfaction provides a useful insight for directing marketing and operational efforts. The Sport Spectator Satisfaction Model (SSSM) is an extension of the Disconfirmation of Expectations Model (DEM) accommodating unique aspects of the sport product, as well as accommodating the core and peripheral dimensions of the spectator service. The SSSM depicts club identification and the win/lose phenomenon as considerable influences on the satisfaction spectators derive from the game and its peripheral services. The SSSM integrates marketing theory, social identity theory and sport marketing theory to broaden our understanding of spectator satisfaction and provide a platform for further research.

Suggested Citation

  • Van Leeuwen, Linda & Quick, Shayne & Daniel, Kerry, 2002. "The Sport Spectator Satisfaction Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Satisfaction of Spectators," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 99-128, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:5:y:2002:i:2:p:99-128

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Oliver, Richard L & Swan, John E, 1989. " Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 372-383, December.
    2. Belk, Russell W, 1988. " Possessions and the Extended Self," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 139-168, September.
    3. Oliver, Richard L & DeSarbo, Wayne S, 1988. " Response Determinants in Satisfaction Judgments," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(4), pages 495-507, March.
    4. Whitney, James D, 1988. "Winning Games versus Winning Championships: The Economics of Fan Interest and Team Performance," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 703-724, October.
    5. Oliver, Richard L, 1993. " Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute BAses of the Satisfaction Response," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 418-430, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Clemes, Michael D. & Brush, Gregory J. & Collins, Mark J., 2011. "Analysing the professional sport experience: A hierarchical approach," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 370-388.
    2. Kim, May & Trail, Galen T., 2010. "The effects of service provider employment status and service quality exchange on perceived organizational image and purchase intention," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 225-234, August.
    3. McDonald, Heath & Karg, Adam J. & Vocino, Andrea, 2013. "Measuring season ticket holder satisfaction: Rationale, scale development and longitudinal validation," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 41-53.
    4. repec:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:5:p:427-442 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Martinez Caro, Laura & Martinez Garcia, Jose Antonio, 2007. "Cognitive-affective model of consumer satisfaction. An exploratory study within the framework of a sporting event," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 108-114, February.
    6. repec:eee:spomar:v:20:y:2017:i:3:p:296-308 is not listed on IDEAS

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