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The autumn effect of gold

Author

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  • Baur, Dirk G.

Abstract

This paper studies recurring annual events potentially introducing seasonality into gold prices. We analyze gold returns for each month from 1980 to 2010 and find that September and November are the only months with positive and statistically significant gold price changes. This “autumn effect” holds unconditionally and conditional on several risk factors. We argue that the anomaly can be explained with hedging demand by investors in anticipation of the “Halloween effect” in the stock market, wedding season gold jewelery demand in India and negative investor sentiment due to shorter daylight time. The autumn effect can also be characterized by a higher unconditional and conditional volatility than in other seasons.

Suggested Citation

  • Baur, Dirk G., 2013. "The autumn effect of gold," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-11.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:27:y:2013:i:1:p:1-11
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2012.05.001
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blose, Laurence E., 2010. "Gold prices, cost of carry, and expected inflation," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 35-47, January.
    2. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    3. Aggarwal, Raj & Lucey, Brian M., 2007. "Psychological barriers in gold prices?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 217-230.
    4. Brian Lucey & Edel Tully, 2006. "Seasonality, risk and return in daily COMEX gold and silver data 1982-2002," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 319-333.
    5. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    6. Schwert, G. William, 2003. "Anomalies and market efficiency," Handbook of the Economics of Finance,in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 15, pages 939-974 Elsevier.
    7. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    8. Capie, Forrest & Mills, Terence C. & Wood, Geoffrey, 2005. "Gold as a hedge against the dollar," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 343-352, October.
    9. Hong, Harrison & Yu, Jialin, 2009. "Gone fishin': Seasonality in trading activity and asset prices," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 672-702, November.
    10. Mark J. Kamstra & Lisa A. Kramer & Maurice D. Levi, 2003. "Winter Blues: A SAD Stock Market Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 324-343, March.
    11. Sven Bouman & Ben Jacobsen, 2002. "The Halloween Indicator, "Sell in May and Go Away": Another Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1618-1635, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Antunes, João Marques & Fuinhas, José Alberto & Marques, António Cardoso, 2014. "Modelização VAR da volatilidade dos preços do ouro e dos índices dos mercados financeiros
      [Modelling the volatility of gold prices and financial stock indexes: a VAR approach]
      ," MPRA Paper 57017, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Bekiros, Stelios & Boubaker, Sabri & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Uddin, Gazi Salah, 2017. "Black swan events and safe havens: The role of gold in globally integrated emerging markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PB), pages 317-334.
    3. O'Connor, Fergal A. & Lucey, Brian M. & Batten, Jonathan A. & Baur, Dirk G., 2015. "The financial economics of gold — A survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 186-205.
    4. Ntim, Collins G. & English, John & Nwachukwu, Jacinta & Wang, Yan, 2015. "On the efficiency of the global gold markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 218-236.
    5. Lepori, Gabriele M., 2015. "Positive mood and investment decisions: Evidence from comedy movie attendance in the U.S," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 142-163.
    6. Gülseven, Osman & Ekici, Özgün, 2016. "The Turkish appetite for gold: An Islamic explanation," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 41-49.
    7. repec:eee:finana:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:292-308 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eee:ecofin:v:43:y:2018:i:c:p:169-205 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Angi Roesch & Harald Schmidbauer & Donghui Jiang, 2013. "Chinese New Year And International Gold Markets," EcoMod2013 5461, EcoMod.
    10. Aytaç, Beysül & Hoang, Thi-Hong-Van & Mandou, Cyrille, 2016. "Wine: To drink or invest in? A study of wine as an investment asset in French portfolios," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 591-614.
    11. Jin-Ray Lu & Chih-Ming Chan, 2014. "Optimal portfolio choice of gold assets in the differential market and differential game structures," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 309-325, February.
    12. Carrazedo, Tiago & Curto, José Dias & Oliveira, Luís, 2016. "The Halloween effect in European sectors," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 489-500.
    13. Białkowski, Jędrzej & Bohl, Martin T. & Stephan, Patrick M. & Wisniewski, Tomasz P., 2015. "The gold price in times of crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 329-339.
    14. Agyei-Ampomah, Sam & Gounopoulos, Dimitrios & Mazouz, Khelifa, 2014. "Does gold offer a better protection against losses in sovereign debt bonds than other metals?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 507-521.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Seasonality; Anomaly; Halloween effect; Gold; Silver; Hedge; Safe haven; Jewelery;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • L70 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction - - - General

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