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Job creation and economic impact of renewable energy in the Netherlands


  • Bulavskaya, Tatyana
  • Reynès, Frédéric


This study evaluates the economic impact of a shift towards renewable electricity mix in the Netherlands using the neo-Keynesian CGEM ThreeME (Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy policy). This scenario has been inspired by the Urgenda's report ‘Energy 100% Sustainable in the Netherlands by 2030’, which have been quantified using the Energy Transition Model (ETM) developed by Quintel. Using the output of the ETM regarding the change in the electricity generation shares as input in ThreeME, we derive the impact in terms of key economic variables (GDP, employment, investment, value-added, prices, trade, tax revenue, etc.). We find that transition to renewable energy may have a positive impact on the Dutch economy, creating almost 50 000 new jobs by 2030 and adding almost 1% of gross domestic product.

Suggested Citation

  • Bulavskaya, Tatyana & Reynès, Frédéric, 2018. "Job creation and economic impact of renewable energy in the Netherlands," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 528-538.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:119:y:2018:i:c:p:528-538
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.09.039

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gaël Callonnec & Gissela Landa Rivera & Paul Malliet & Aurélien Saussay & Frédéric Reynès, 2016. "Les propriétés dynamiques et de long terme du modèle ThreeME. Un cahier de variantes," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(5), pages 47-99.
    2. Jean Château & Rob Dellink & Elisa Lanzi, 2014. "An Overview of the OECD ENV-Linkages Model: Version 3," OECD Environment Working Papers 65, OECD Publishing.
    3. Landa Rivera, Gissela & Reynès, Frédéric & Islas Cortes, Ivan & Bellocq, François-Xavier & Grazi, Fabio, 2016. "Towards a low carbon growth in Mexico: Is a double dividend possible? A dynamic general equilibrium assessment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 314-327.
    4. Brecard, Dorothee & Fougeyrollas, Arnaud & Le Mouel, Pierre & Lemiale, Lionel & Zagame, Paul, 2006. "Macro-economic consequences of European research policy: Prospects of the Nemesis model in the year 2030," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 910-924, September.
    5. Gaël Callonnec & Gissela Landa & Paul Malliet & Aurélien Saussay & Frédéric Reynès, 2016. "Les propriétés dynamiques et de long terme du modèle Three Me," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/24e37r90088, Sciences Po.
    6. Christian Lutz & Bernd Meyer & Marc Ingo Wolter, 2010. "The global multisector/multicountry 3-E model GINFORS. A description of the model and a baseline forecast for global energy demand and CO 2 emissions," International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(1/2), pages 25-45.
    7. Gaël Callonnec & Gissela Landa Rivera & Paul Malliet & Aurélien Saussay & Frédéric Reynès, 2016. "Les propriétés dynamiques et de long terme du modèle ThreeME. Un cahier de variantes," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(5), pages 47-99.
    8. Reynès Frédéric G. & Paul Malliet, 2017. "Assessing Low Carbon and Resilient Growth in Indonesia: An application of the ThreeME model," Working Papers hal-01708487, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dhunny, A.Z. & Allam, Z. & Lobine, D. & Lollchund, M.R., 2019. "Sustainable renewable energy planning and wind farming optimization from a biodiversity perspective," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(C), pages 1282-1297.
    2. Reynès, Frédéric, 2019. "The Cobb–Douglas function as a flexible function," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 11-17.
    3. Jae Yun Jeong & Inje Kang & Ki Seok Choi & Byeong-Hee Lee, 2018. "Network Analysis on Green Technology in National Research and Development Projects in Korea," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(4), pages 1-12, April.
    4. Charfeddine, Lanouar & Kahia, Montassar, 2019. "Impact of renewable energy consumption and financial development on CO2 emissions and economic growth in the MENA region: A panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) analysis," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 198-213.
    5. Ortega, Margarita & Río, Pablo del & Ruiz, Pablo & Nijs, Wouter & Politis, Savvas, 2020. "Analysing the influence of trade, technology learning and policy on the employment prospects of wind and solar energy deployment: The EU case," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    6. Andrew Crossland & Keith Scoles & Allen Wang & Chris Groves & Susan Sun, 2020. "Assessment of Electricity Decarbonization Scenarios for New Zealand and Great Britain using a Plant Dispatch and Electrical Energy Storage Modelling Framework," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(11), pages 1-19, June.
    7. Frédéric Reynés, 2019. "The Cobb-Douglas function as a flexible function: A new perspective on homogeneous functions through the lens of output elasticities," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/62drs526639, Sciences Po.
    8. Lekavičius, Vidas & Galinis, Arvydas & Miškinis, Vaclovas, 2019. "Long-term economic impacts of energy development scenarios: The role of domestic electricity generation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 253(C), pages 1-1.
    9. Tarek Safwat Kabel & Mohga Bassim, 2019. "Literature Review of Renewable Energy Policies and Impacts," European Journal of Marketing and Economics, European Center for Science Education and Research, vol. 2, EJME May .
    10. Alizadeh, Reza & Soltanisehat, Leili & Lund, Peter D. & Zamanisabzi, Hamed, 2020. "Improving renewable energy policy planning and decision-making through a hybrid MCDM method," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    11. Lobato, E. & Doenges, K. & Egido, I. & Sigrist, L., 2020. "Limits to wind aggregation: Empirical assessment in the Spanish electricity system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(P1), pages 1321-1330.
    12. Jia Liu & Jizu Li & Xilong Yao, 2019. "The Economic Effects of the Development of the Renewable Energy Industry in China," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(9), pages 1-18, May.

    More about this item


    Energy transition; Climate policy; Energy-economy modeling; Netherlands;

    JEL classification:

    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian; Modern Monetary Theory
    • E17 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E27 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E47 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models


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