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Statistical correction of judgmental point forecasts and decisions


  • Goodwin, P.


In many organizations point estimates labelled as 'forecasts' are produced by human judgment rather than statistical methods. However, when these estimates are subject to asymmetric loss they are, in fact, decisions because they involve the selection of a value with the objective of minimizing loss. While there are often considerable advantages in using judgment to arrive at these decisions the psychological demands of the task may mean that the resulting decisions are sub-optimal when compared with those resulting from a normative decision model. In these circumstances a combination of statistical methods and judgment may be superior. This paper suggests a procedure which involves the statistical correction of the original decision to obtain a forecast and the subsequent use of a mathematical model to identify the theoretically optimal decision in the light of this forecast. The application of the procedure to the monthly decisions of a manufacturing company suggests that it may offer the potential for achieving substantial improvements in many practical contexts.

Suggested Citation

  • Goodwin, P., 1996. "Statistical correction of judgmental point forecasts and decisions," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 551-559, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:24:y:1996:i:5:p:551-559

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Steven D. Wood & Bert M. Steece, 1978. "Forecasting the Product of Two Time Series with a Linear Asymmetric Error Cost Function," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 24(6), pages 690-701, February.
    2. Goodwin, P & Wright, G, 1994. "Heuristics, biases and improvement strategies in judgmental time series forecasting," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 553-568, November.
    3. Goodwin, Paul & Wright, George, 1993. "Improving judgmental time series forecasting: A review of the guidance provided by research," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 147-161, August.
    4. Clemen, Robert T., 1989. "Combining forecasts: A review and annotated bibliography," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 559-583.
    5. M. J. Lawrence & R. H. Edmundson & M. J. O'Connor, 1986. "The Accuracy of Combining Judgemental and Statistical Forecasts," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(12), pages 1521-1532, December.
    6. Robert C. Blattberg & Stephen J. Hoch, 1990. "Database Models and Managerial Intuition: 50% Model + 50% Manager," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(8), pages 887-899, August.
    7. Dalrymple, Douglas J., 1987. "Sales forecasting practices: Results from a United States survey," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 3(3-4), pages 379-391.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sinan Gönül & Dilek Önkal & Paul Goodwin, 2009. "Expectations, use and judgmental adjustment of external financial and economic forecasts: an empirical investigation," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 19-37.
    2. Lawrence, Michael & Goodwin, Paul & O'Connor, Marcus & Onkal, Dilek, 2006. "Judgmental forecasting: A review of progress over the last 25 years," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 493-518.
    3. Goodwin, Paul, 2005. "Providing support for decisions based on time series information under conditions of asymmetric loss," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 163(2), pages 388-402, June.
    4. Goodwin, Paul & Lawton, Richard, 1999. "On the asymmetry of the symmetric MAPE," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 405-408, October.
    5. Lee, Yun Shin, 2014. "A semi-parametric approach for estimating critical fractiles under autocorrelated demand," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 163-173.
    6. Önkal, Dilek & Bolger, Fergus, 2004. "Provider-user differences in perceived usefulness of forecasting formats," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 31-39, February.
    7. Goodwin, Paul, 2000. "Correct or combine? Mechanically integrating judgmental forecasts with statistical methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 261-275.
    8. Blanc, Sebastian M. & Setzer, Thomas, 2015. "Analytical debiasing of corporate cash flow forecasts," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 243(3), pages 1004-1015.
    9. Syntetos, Aris A. & Kholidasari, Inna & Naim, Mohamed M., 2016. "The effects of integrating management judgement into OUT levels: In or out of context?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 249(3), pages 853-863.
    10. JS Armstrong & Fred Collopy, 2004. "Integration of Statistical Methods and Judgment for Time Series," General Economics and Teaching 0412024, EconWPA.


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