Recent developments in intellectual property and power in the private sector related to food and agriculture
The legal protection of intellectual property (IP) has allowed private persons and enterprises to assert exclusive rights in relation to certain agricultural innovations. Whether through the protection of breeding innovations under plant variety rights protection laws or through the patenting of genes and gene fragments, the increasing involvement of IPRs in agriculture has effected a shift of agricultural research from public to private institutions. This article examines the changes in the international IP landscape which has facilitated these developments and looks at the impacts of modern IP developments upon agricultural research and farmers. It concludes with a consideration of IP liability issues arising from the development of GM agriculture.
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- Alston, Julian M. & Pardey, Philip G. & Roseboom, Johannes, 1998. "Financing agricultural research: International investment patterns and policy perspectives," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1057-1071, June.
- Binenbaum, Eran, et al, 2003. "South-North Trade, Intellectual Property Jurisdictions, and Freedom to Operate in Agricultural Research on Staple Crops," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 309-335, January.
- Pingali, P. L. & Traxler, G., 2002. "Changing locus of agricultural research: will the poor benefit from biotechnology and privatization trends?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 223-238, June.
- Nottenburg, Carol & Pardey, Philip G. & Wright, Brian D., 2002. "Accessing other people’s technology for non-profit research," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(3), September.
- Spielman, David J. & von Grebmer, Klaus, 2004. "Public-private partnerships in agricultural research: an analysis of challenges facing industry and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research," EPTD discussion papers 113, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Binenbaum, Eran & et al, 2003. "South-North Trade, Intellectual Property Jurisdictions, and Freedom to Operate in Agricultural Research on Staple Crops," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 309-335, January.
- Gregory D. Graff & Gordon C. Rausser & Arthur A. Small, 2003.
"Agricultural Biotechnology's Complementary Intellectual Assets,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 349-363, May.
- Graff, Gregory D. & Rausser, Gordon C. & Small, Arthur Adams, 2001. "Agricultural biotechnology's complementary intellectual assets," CUDARE Working Paper Series 925, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Jayashree Watal, 2000. "Pharmaceutical Patents, Prices and Welfare Losses: Policy Options for India Under the WTO TRIPS Agreement," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 733-752, 05.
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