IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Consumer cosmopolitanism: Review and replication of the CYMYC scale


  • Riefler, Petra
  • Diamantopoulos, Adamantios


Extant marketing literature mainly focuses on explaining why consumers might prefer domestic products and refrain from buying foreign products but, however, is weak in explaining why consumers might intentionally opt for foreign products. Against this background, consumer cosmopolitanism has gained increasing attention as a potentially relevant consumer characteristic for explaining foreign product preference and choice. However, empirical evidence on the impact of consumer cosmopolitanism on consumption behavior remains scarce. This paper identifies the absence of an appropriate measurement instrument as a main reason for this lack of empirical studies by providing (a) a review of cosmopolitanism scales used in other research fields, and (b) a replication with extensions study of the CYMYC scale, the only consumer cosmopolitanism scale currently available. The findings highlight a need for a new scale to measure the consumer cosmopolitanism construct. To stimulate further research in this direction, the paper proposes a conceptual definition of consumer cosmopolitanism along with a nomological network to guide the scale development process.

Suggested Citation

  • Riefler, Petra & Diamantopoulos, Adamantios, 2009. "Consumer cosmopolitanism: Review and replication of the CYMYC scale," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 407-419, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:62:y:2009:i:4:p:407-419

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hubbard, Raymond & Vetter, Daniel E., 1996. "An empirical comparison of published replication research in accounting, economics, finance, management, and marketing," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 153-164, February.
    2. Tian, Kelly Tepper & Bearden, William O & Hunter, Gary L, 2001. " Consumer's Need for Uniqueness: Scale Development and Validation," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(1), pages 50-66, June.
    3. Holt, Douglas B, 1997. " Poststructuralist Lifestyle Analysis: Conceptualizing the Social Patterning of Consumption in Postmodernity," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(4), pages 326-350, March.
    4. S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2002. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 1-3, January.
    5. Kenneth Bollen, 1984. "Multiple indicators: Internal consistency or no necessary relationship?," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 377-385, August.
    6. George Balabanis & Adamantios Diamantopoulos & Rene Dentiste Mueller & T C Melewar, 2001. "The Impact of Nationalism, Patriotism and Internationalism on Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(1), pages 157-175, March.
    7. Evanschitzky, Heiner & Baumgarth, Carsten & Hubbard, Raymond & Armstrong, J. Scott, 2007. "Replication research's disturbing trend," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 411-415, April.
    8. Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E M & Baumgartner, Hans, 1998. " Assessing Measurement Invariance in Cross-National Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(1), pages 78-90, June.
    9. Easley, Richard W. & Madden, Charles S. & Dunn, Mark G., 2000. "Conducting Marketing Science: The Role of Replication in the Research Process," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 83-92, April.
    10. Hubert Gatignon & Jehoshua Eliashberg & Thomas S. Robertson, 1989. "Modeling Multinational Diffusion Patterns: An Efficient Methodology," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 8(3), pages 231-247.
    11. Lee Cronbach, 1947. "Test “reliability”: Its meaning and determination," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 12(1), pages 1-16, March.
    12. Thompson, Craig J & Tambyah, Siok Kuan, 1999. " Trying to Be Cosmopolitan," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(3), pages 214-241, December.
    13. Holt, Douglas B, 1998. " Does Cultural Capital Structure American Consumption?," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(1), pages 1-25, June.
    14. Orly Levy & Schon Beechler & Sully Taylor & Nakiye A Boyacigiller, 2007. "What we talk about when we talk about ‘global mindset’: Managerial cognition in multinational corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(2), pages 231-258, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ijrema:v:29:y:2012:i:4:p:337-345 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Johan Lindell & Yuwei Lin, 2014. "A Methodological Intervention in Cosmopolitanism Research: Cosmopolitan Dispositions Amongst Digital Natives," Sociological Research Online, Sociological Research Online, vol. 19(3), pages 1-19.
    3. Jin, Zhongqi & Lynch, Richard & Attia, Samaa & Chansarkar, Bal & Gülsoy, Tanses & Lapoule, Paul & Liu, Xueyuan & Newburry, William & Nooraini, Mohamad Sheriff & Parente, Ronaldo & Purani, Keyoor & Ung, 2015. "The relationship between consumer ethnocentrism, cosmopolitanism and product country image among younger generation consumers: The moderating role of country development status," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 380-393.
    4. Oliver Parts, 2013. "The Effects of Cosmopolitanism on Consumer Ethnocentrism, Brand Origin Identification and Foreign Product Purchases," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 3(11), pages 30-44, November.
    5. repec:eee:jbrese:v:77:y:2017:i:c:p:195-202 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Gineikiene, Justina & Schlegelmilch, Bodo B. & Auruskeviciene, Vilte, 2017. "“Ours” or “theirs”? Psychological ownership and domestic products preferences," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 93-103.
    7. repec:eee:ijrema:v:29:y:2012:i:1:p:25-34 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Alessandro De Nisco & Giada Mainolfi & Vittoria Marino & Maria Rosaria Napolitano, 2015. "Aufmerksamkeit Frau Merkel! Animosità economica, etnocentrismo ed effetto country-of-origin: uno studio sulla percezione della Germania in Italia durante la crisi dell’euro," MERCATI E COMPETITIVITÀ, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2015(2), pages 87-110.
    9. Bartikowski, Boris & Walsh, Gianfranco, 2015. "Attitude toward cultural diversity: A test of identity-related antecedents and purchasing consequences," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 526-533.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:62:y:2009:i:4:p:407-419. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.