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Culture as a consequence: A multi-level multivariate meta-analysis of the effects of individual and country characteristics on work-related cultural values

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  • Steel, Piers
  • Taras, Vasyl

Abstract

Culture as a consequence is a neglected topic. Addressing this, we explore what factors are related to and potentially shape culture, what explains cultural variations within countries, and what the relationship is between cultural values at the individual and national levels. To answer these questions, we use a multi-level multivariate meta-analysis of 508 studies. The findings indicate that national and individual cultural values may be determined by the micro characteristics of age, gender, education, and socio-economic status as well as the macro characteristics of wealth and freedom. This provides a basis for explaining cultural change, both at the individual and national levels. Also, up to 90% of the variance in cultural values is found to reside within countries, stressing that national averages poorly represent specific individuals.

Suggested Citation

  • Steel, Piers & Taras, Vasyl, 2010. "Culture as a consequence: A multi-level multivariate meta-analysis of the effects of individual and country characteristics on work-related cultural values," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 211-233, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:16:y:2010:i:3:p:211-233
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    Cited by:

    1. David Ralston & Carolyn Egri & Olivier Furrer & Min-Hsun Kuo & Yongjuan Li & Florian Wangenheim & Marina Dabic & Irina Naoumova & Katsuhiko Shimizu & María Garza Carranza & Ping Fu & Vojko Potocan & A, 2014. "Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 122(2), pages 283-306, June.
    2. Taras, Vas & Steel, Piers & Kirkman, Bradley L., 2012. "Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede's dimensions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 329-341.
    3. Timothy M. Devinney & Jan Hohberger, 2017. "The past is prologue: Moving on from Culture’s Consequences," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 48(1), pages 48-62, January.
    4. Vas Taras & Piers Steel & Bradley L. Kirkman, 2016. "Does Country Equate with Culture? Beyond Geography in the Search for Cultural Boundaries," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 56(4), pages 455-487, August.
    5. Richter, Nicole Franziska & Hauff, Sven & Schlaegel, Christopher & Gudergan, Siegfried & Ringle, Christian M. & Gunkel, Marjaana, 2016. "Using Cultural Archetypes in Cross-cultural Management Studies," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 63-83.
    6. Gunkel, Marjaana & Schlägel, Christopher & Engle, Robert L., 2014. "Culture's Influence on Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study of Nine Countries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 256-274.
    7. Fatehi, Kamal & Kedia, Ben L. & Priestley, Jennifer L., 2015. "Mindscapes and individual heterogeneity within and between cultures," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 291-298.
    8. Hauff, Sven & Richter, Nicole Franziska & Tressin, Tabea, 2015. "Situational job characteristics and job satisfaction: The moderating role of national culture," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 710-723.
    9. Černe, Matej & Jaklič, Marko & Škerlavaj, Miha, 2013. "Decoupling management and technological innovations: Resolving the individualism–collectivism controversy," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 103-117.
    10. Yuzhe Miao & Yuping Zeng & Jeoung Yul Lee, 2016. "Headquarters Resource Allocation for Inter-Subsidiary Innovation Transfer: The Effect of Within-Country and Cross-Country Cultural Differences," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 56(5), pages 665-698, October.
    11. Gunkel, Marjaana & Schlaegel, Christopher & Taras, Vas, 2016. "Cultural values, emotional intelligence, and conflict handling styles: A global study," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 568-585.
    12. Egri, Carolyn P. & Khilji, Shaista E. & Ralston, David A. & Palmer, Ian & Girson, Ilya & Milton, Laurie & Richards, Malika & Ramburuth, Prem & Mockaitis, Audra, 2012. "Do Anglo countries still form a values cluster? Evidence of the complexity of value change," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 267-276.
    13. Bradley L Kirkman & Kevin B Lowe & Cristina B Gibson, 2017. "A retrospective on Culture’s Consequences: The 35-year journey," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 48(1), pages 12-29, January.
    14. Aïssaoui, Rachida & Fabian, Frances, 2015. "The French Paradox: Implications for Variations in Global Convergence," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 31-48.

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