IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/iburev/v26y2017i6p1034-1050.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Export prices, selection into exporting and market size: Evidence from China and India

Author

Listed:
  • Mallick, Sushanta
  • Marques, Helena

Abstract

This paper empirically analyses the export pricing behaviour of Chinese and Indian exporters when there is selection into exporting. Previous exchange rate pass-through estimates that did not take selection into account could be biased if selection into exporting is correlated with pricing strategy. We use 6-digit product-level data across high- and low-income export destinations over the period 1994–2007 and assess a number of determinants of the degree of pass-through of exchange rates to export prices, such as the level of external demand, exporter’s wage cost, degree of competition in export markets, currency volatility and the direction of currency movements. We find systematic differences in the pricing strategies of Chinese and Indian exporters while uncovering a selection bias in exports to high-income markets, although the pricing of exports to low-income markets is independent of the decision to export. Export prices do not increase systematically with the destination market per capita income, and tend to be less sensitive in shipments to advanced nations. Export prices of India are sensitive to the volatility of the trade-weighted nominal effective exchange rate (NEER), indicating heterogeneity in prices to maintain competitiveness, but not in China as volatility is insignificant given a fixed currency system. It is also revealed that a country with a relatively flexible currency regime and arms-length trade such as India is more likely to exhibit incomplete pass-through, whereas a country with an inflexible currency system and involved in outward processing trade is more likely to have full pass-through as shown in the case of China.

Suggested Citation

  • Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2017. "Export prices, selection into exporting and market size: Evidence from China and India," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1034-1050.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:6:p:1034-1050
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.03.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593116302608
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Dedola, Luca, 2005. "A macroeconomic model of international price discrimination," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 129-155, September.
    2. Brent, Neiman, 2011. "A state-dependent model of intermediate goods pricing," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 1-13, September.
    3. Emi Nakamura & Dawit Zerom, 2010. "Accounting for Incomplete Pass-Through," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(3), pages 1192-1230.
    4. Corsetti, Giancarlo & Dedola, Luca & Leduc, Sylvain, 2008. "High exchange-rate volatility and low pass-through," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(6), pages 1113-1128, September.
    5. Fang, WenShwo & Lai, YiHao & Miller, Stephen M., 2009. "Does exchange rate risk affect exports asymmetrically? Asian evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 215-239, March.
    6. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Kalina Manova & Zhiwei Zhang, 2012. "Export Prices Across Firms and Destinations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 379-436.
    8. Athukorala, Premachandra & Menon, Jayant, 1995. "Exchange Rates and Strategic Pricing: The Case of Swedish Machinery Exports," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 57(4), pages 533-546, November.
    9. Fabio Ghironi & Marc J. Melitz, 2005. "International Trade and Macroeconomic Dynamics with Heterogeneous Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(3), pages 865-915.
    10. Matthieu Bussiere, 2013. "Exchange Rate Pass-through to Trade Prices: The Role of Nonlinearities and Asymmetries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 75(5), pages 731-758, October.
    11. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    12. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Peter K. Schott, 2006. "Transfer Pricing by U.S.-Based Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 12493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Tarasov, Alexander, 2012. "Per capita income, market access costs, and trade volumes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 284-294.
    14. George Alessandria & Joseph P. Kaboski, 2011. "Pricing-to-Market and the Failure of Absolute PPP," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 91-127, January.
    15. Arpita Chatterjee & Rafael Dix-Carneiro & Jade Vichyanond, 2013. "Multi-product Firms and Exchange Rate Fluctuations," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 5(2), pages 77-110, May.
    16. Sushanta Mallick & Yong Yang, 2013. "Productivity Performance of Export Market Entry and Exit: Evidence from Indian Firms," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 809-824, September.
    17. Michael J. Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2012. "Quality Competition and Pricing-to-Market: A Unified Framework for the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 860-877, January.
    18. Gita Gopinath & Oleg Itskhoki, 2010. "Frequency of Price Adjustment and Pass-Through," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(2), pages 675-727.
    19. Hellerstein, Rebecca & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2010. "Outsourcing and pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 170-183, July.
    20. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2008. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity (DOI:10.111/j.1467-937x.2007.00463.x)," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(3), pages 985-985.
    21. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2008. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(1), pages 295-316.
    22. Sushanta Mallick & Helena Marques, 2008. "Passthrough of Exchange Rate and Tariffs into Import Prices of India: Currency Depreciation versus Import Liberalization," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 765-782, September.
    23. Crucini, Mario J. & Shintani, Mototsugu & Tsuruga, Takayuki, 2013. "Do sticky prices increase real exchange rate volatility at the sector level?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 58-72.
    24. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(2), pages 441-487.
    25. Raphael Auer & Thomas Chaney, 2009. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in a Competitive Model of Pricing-to-Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(s1), pages 151-175, February.
    26. Nicolas Berman & Philippe Martin & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "How do Different Exporters React to Exchange Rate Changes?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 437-492.
    27. Mathias Hoffmann, 2007. "Fixed versus Flexible Exchange Rates: Evidence from Developing Countries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(295), pages 425-449, August.
    28. Neiman, Brent, 2010. "Stickiness, synchronization, and passthrough in intrafirm trade prices," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 295-308, April.
    29. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2016. "Does quality differentiation matter in exporters' pricing behaviour? Comparing China and India," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 71-90.
    30. José Antonio Rodríguez-López, 2011. "Prices and Exchange Rates: A Theory of Disconnect," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(3), pages 1135-1177.
    31. Bowe, Michael & Saltvedt, Thina M., 2004. "Currency invoicing practices, exchange rate volatility and pricing-to-market: evidence from product level data," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 281-308, June.
    32. Chamarbagwala, Rubiana & Sharma, Gunjan, 2011. "Industrial de-licensing, trade liberalization, and skill upgrading in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 314-336, November.
    33. Yong Yang & Sushanta Mallick, 2010. "Export Premium, Self‐selection and Learning‐by‐Exporting: Evidence from Chinese Matched Firms," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(10), pages 1218-1240, October.
    34. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Exchange rate pass-through: A generalization," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 493-504, July.
    35. Paul R. Bergin & Robert C. Feenstra, 2009. "Pass-Through of Exchange Rates and Competition between Floaters and Fixers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(s1), pages 35-70, February.
    36. repec:hrv:faseco:30703806 is not listed on IDEAS
    37. Sushanta Mallick & Helena Marques, 2008. "Exchange Rate Transmission into Industry-Level Export Prices: A Tale of Two Policy Regimes in India," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 55(1), pages 83-108, April.
    38. Roberto Álvarez & J. Rodrigo Fuentes, 2011. "Entry into Export Markets and Product Quality," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(8), pages 1237-1262, August.
    39. Aw, Bee Yan & Batra, Geeta & Roberts, Mark J., 2001. "Firm heterogeneity and export-domestic price differentials: A study of Taiwanese electronics products," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 149-169, June.
    40. Betts, Caroline & Devereux, Michael B., 2000. "Exchange rate dynamics in a model of pricing-to-market," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 215-244, February.
    41. Arnoldo López Marmolejo, 2011. "Effects of a Free Trade Agreement on the Exchange Rate Pass‐through to Import Prices," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 475-493, August.
    42. Johnson, Robert C., 2012. "Trade and prices with heterogeneous firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 43-56.
    43. Yang, Yong & Mallick, Sushanta, 2014. "Explaining cross-country differences in exporting performance: The role of country-level macroeconomic environment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 246-259.
    44. Hellerstein, Rebecca & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2010. "Outsourcing and pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 170-183, July.
    45. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2010. "Data frequency and exchange rate pass-through: Evidence from India's exports," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 13-22, January.
    46. Knetter, Michael M., 1994. "Is export price adjustment asymmetric?: evaluating the market share and marketing bottlenecks hypotheses," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 55-70, February.
    47. Aw, Bee-Yan, 1993. "Price discrimination and markups in export markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 315-336, December.
    48. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2012. "Pricing to market with trade liberalization: The role of market heterogeneity and product differentiation in India’s exports," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 310-336.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Yang, Yang & Mukhopadhaya, Pundarik & Yu, Zhuangxiong, 2020. "Relationship between city size and firm productivity – A new interpretation using the Chinese experience," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 546-558.
    2. Subhadip Mukherjee & Soumyatanu Mukherjee & Tapas Mishra & Udo Broll, 2019. "Export investment under uncertainty: a mean-variance decision analysis for Indian manufacturing exporters," Discussion Papers 2019-18, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    3. Chen, Quanrun & Chen, Xikang & Pei, Jiansuo & Yang, Cuihong & Zhu, Kunfu, 2020. "Estimating domestic content in China’s exports: Accounting for a dual-trade regime," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 43-54.
    4. Sharma, Chandan & Pal, Debdatta, 2018. "Exchange rate volatility and India's cross-border trade: A pooled mean group and nonlinear cointegration approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 230-246.
    5. Mnasri, Ayman & Nechi, Salem, 2021. "New nonlinear estimators of the gravity equation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 192-202.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2016. "Pricing strategy of emerging market exporters in alternate currency regimes: The role of comparative advantage," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 68-81.
    2. Mallick, Sushanta & Marques, Helena, 2016. "Does quality differentiation matter in exporters' pricing behaviour? Comparing China and India," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 71-90.
    3. Chen, Natalie & Juvenal, Luciana, 2016. "Quality, trade, and exchange rate pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 61-80.
    4. A. Auer, Raphael & Chaney, Thomas & Sauré, Philip, 2018. "Quality pricing-to-market," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 87-102.
    5. José Antonio Rodríguez-López, 2011. "Prices and Exchange Rates: A Theory of Disconnect," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(3), pages 1135-1177.
    6. Auer, Raphael A. & Schoenle, Raphael S., 2016. "Market structure and exchange rate pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 60-77.
    7. Ha, Jongrim & Marc Stocker, M. & Yilmazkuday, Hakan, 2020. "Inflation and exchange rate pass-through," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    8. Burstein, Ariel & Gopinath, Gita, 2014. "International Prices and Exchange Rates," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 391-451, Elsevier.
    9. Li, Hongbin & Ma, Hong & Xu, Yuan, 2015. "How do exchange rate movements affect Chinese exports? — A firm-level investigation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 148-161.
    10. Mauro Caselli & Arpita Chatterjee & Alan Woodland, 2017. "Multi-product exporters, variable markups and exchange rate fluctuations," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1130-1160, November.
    11. YOSHIDA Yushi & SASAKI Yuri, 2015. "Automobile Exports: Export price and retail price," Discussion papers 15024, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    12. Raphael A. Auer, 2015. "Exchange Rate Pass‐Through, Domestic Competition, and Inflation: Evidence from the 2005–08 Revaluation of the Renminbi," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(8), pages 1617-1650, December.
    13. Melitz, Marc J. & Redding, Stephen J., 2014. "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 1-54, Elsevier.
    14. Natalie Chen & Luciana Juvenal, 2014. "Quality, Trade, and Exchange Rate Pass-Through," IMF Working Papers 2014/042, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Joakim Gullstrand & Karin Olofsdotter & Susanna Thede, 2014. "Markups and export-pricing strategies," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(2), pages 221-239, May.
    16. Emi Nakamura & Jón Steinsson, 2012. "Lost in Transit: Product Replacement Bias and Pricing to Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3277-3316, December.
    17. Antoniades, Alexis, 2015. "Heterogeneous Firms, Quality, and Trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 263-273.
    18. Beatriz de Blas & Katheryn N. Russ, 2015. "Understanding Markups in the Open Economy," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 157-180, April.
    19. Sofia Anyfantaki & Sarantis Kalyvitis & Margarita Katsimi & Eirini Thomaidou, 2018. "Export pricing at the firm level with panel data," Working Papers 241, Bank of Greece.
    20. Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido G., 2016. "High-income export destinations, quality and wages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 21-35.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exchange-rate pass-through; Pricing-to-market; Selection into exporting; Product differentiation; India; China;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:6:p:1034-1050. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.